[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The authors describe a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma located in the thigh, with distal metastases to lungs, bones, and bone marrow. A very good partial response to first-line chemotherapy was obtained, but the child developed fatal leptomeningeal dissemination immediately after complete resection of the primary tumor. This case demonstrates the rapidity with which leptomeningeal spread of extracranial metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma can occur and underscores the importance of diagnostic lumbar puncture and brain radiological investigations at diagnosis, even when the tumors are not in the parameningeal location.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a well-known entity, but there are no data on prognosis according to the age of the patient, especially in infants. A 2-month-old girl was admitted with a 2-week history of coughing, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Physical examination revealed mild respiratory distress, an erythematous macular rash on her trunk, massive cervical lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and very mild ascites. Chest radiograph showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusion, and a mediastinal mass. CBC count showed WBC: 172,000/microL (PMN 40%, lymphocytes 47%, monocytes 3%); hemoglobin concentration: 8.7 g/dL; platelets: 390,000/microL. Cervical lymph node biopsy revealed anaplastic lymphoma with positive staining to ALK 1 and TIA 1. Immunophenotypic analysis of peripheral and bone marrow lymphoid cells showed an aberrant T-cell immunophenotype, including expression of CD3, CD45R0+, CD43+, and CD30+. Cytogenetic analysis performed on blood and bone marrow samples demonstrated the translocation t(2;5) (p23;q35), and trisomy 47. After leucophoresis, the child received chemotherapy according to the ALCL-99-EICNHL protocol, and was started on corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, which resulted in marked improvement. After the second course, WBC decreased to 6000/microL without tumor lysis syndrome, but the child developed bacterial and fungal disseminated infections and died of septic shock with multiorgan failure. This report is of a rare case of infant anaplastic lymphoma and excellent response to treatment. Unfortunately, she did succumb to overwhelming infection. More reports of similar cases may determine the cause and prognosis of such children, helping to tailor therapy according to the age of the child and other prognostic factors, especially bone marrow involvement.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Pediatric Hematology and Oncology