[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates contention resolution schemes for optical packet switching networks from an end-to-end perspective, where the combined exploitation of both core routers and edge routers are highlighted. For the optical-core network, we present the architecture of an optical router to achieve contention resolution in wavelength, time, and space domains. Complementing the solution involving only the core router intelligences, we propose performance enhancement schemes at the network edge, including a traffic-shaping function at the ingress edge and a proper dimensioning of the drop port number at the egress edge. Both schemes prove effective in reducing networkwide packet-loss rates. In particular, scalability performance simulations demonstrate that a considerably low packet-loss rate (0.0001% at load 0.6) is achieved in a 16-wavelength network by incorporating the performance enhancement schemes at the edge with the contention resolution schemes in the core. Further, we develop an field-programmable gate-array (FPGA)-based switch controller and integrate it with enabling optical devices to demonstrate the packet-by-packet contention resolution. Proof-of-principle experiments involving the prototype core router achieve an error-free low-latency contention resolution.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Lightwave Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates comprehensive operation and experimentation of an all-optical packet switching router with optical label swapping and reamplification and reshaping (2R) regeneration, capable of multihop operation and Internet protocol (IP)-client interoperability. In particular, the experiment demonstrates successful packet switching and transport up to 11 hops with 10<sup>-9</sup> bit-error rate and error-free up to four hops. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the optical label switching (OLS) core router and edge routers working together to support IP-client-to-IP-client packet transport and switching across the optical label switching network. The edge router generates an optical label based on the IP header content of the packet and generates an optical label encoded packet, which subsequently ingresses into the OLS network. The optical label switching router (OLSR) forwards the packet with all-optical label swapping at each hop with 2R regeneration. The 2R regeneration leads to an experimentally measured negative penalty and a successful experimental demonstration of multihop cascaded OLSR operation with the edge routers interfacing with IP clients. The successful IP-client-to-IP-client packet forwarding via the edge routers and the cascaded multihop OLSR with all-optical label swapping indicate the viability of OLS in the scalable and transparent IP-over-optical Internet.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Lightwave Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate packet-by-packet contention resolution in wavelength, time, and space domains in an optical-label switching system using tunable wavelength conversion, an arrayed-waveguide grating router, and fiber delay lines. Wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation provides 2R regeneration to the optical signal.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the architecture, protocol, analysis, and experimentation of optical packet switching routers incorporating optical-label switching (OLS) technologies and electronic edge routers with traffic shaping capabilities. The core optical router incorporates all-optical switching with contention resolution in wavelength, time, and space domains. It is also capable of accommodating traffic of any protocol and format, and supports packet, flow, burst, and circuit traffic. The edge router is designed to achieve traffic shaping with consideration for quality of service and priority based class-of-service. Simulation results show packet loss rates below 0.3% at load 0.7 and jitter values below 18 μs. The traffic shaping reduces the packet loss rate by a factor of ∼5 while adding negligible additional latency. The OLS core routers and the electronic edge routers are constructed including the field-programmable-gate-arrays incorporating the wavelength-aware forwarding and contention resolution algorithms. The experiment shows optical-label-based packet switching with a packet loss rate near 0.2%.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate packet-by-packet contention resolution in wavelength, time and space domains in an optical-label switching system using tunable wavelength conversion, arrayed-waveguide grating router and fiber delay-line, and with 2R regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses multihop routing, all-optical label swapping operation of optical label switching routers that make real-time decisions based on the label and the forwarding table. The switching fabric conducts data regeneration and label rewriting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses multi-hop routing, all-optical label swapping operation of optical label switching routers that make real-time decisions based on the label and the forwarding table. The switching fabric conducts data regeneration and label rewriting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses multi-hop operation of an optical-label switching system, demonstrating rapid all-optical packet switching with 2R regeneration for the data and optical label swapping for the label. Introduction Optical-label switching technology has the potential to provide low latency and transparency desired for the next generation Internet [1-2]. For network applications, the router must be cascadable. Moreover, data and label regeneration with label swapping capabilities are desired. Recent demonstrations have been limited to single-hop operations with label swapping , multi-hop operations without label or data regeneration . This paper discusses an experimental demonstration of multi-hop (up to 11-hop) operation, in an optical packet routing system with 2R regeneration and optical-label swapping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the transport and routing of traffic from IP client-to-IP client through a multi-hop optical label-switching network. Edge routers generate optical labels and achieve interconnection between IP clients across the network. Introduction IP-over-optical is a novel concept that has been actively pursued in the past several years targeting seamless integration of data and optical networking. Optical-label switching (OLS) [1,2] is an attractive technology for accommodating IP-over-optical on a WDM platform using a thin shim layer that employs optical labels. As in MPLS networks, OLS networks require edge routers to perform optical-label generation with label-distribution-protocol (LDP). Edge routers in OLS networks also function as important interfaces for IP, MPLS, ATM, or any legacy format clients or client networks. While there are demonstrations of computer-to-computer communications using optical label switching mechanisms , there has been no report on multiple-hop optical label-switching network demonstrations with multi-gigabit data rate, IP transport with label generating edge routers. This paper discusses the implementation and demonstration of an edge router for a multi-hop OLS network interfacing with an OC-48 (2.488Gbps) packet over SONET (POS) legacy network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an all-optical packet-based time-slot interchanger using tunable wavelength conversion, N×N AWGRs and fiber delay lines. Wavelength conversion is realized using tunable laser and SOA cross-gain modulation. This scheme is not only compatible to the optical-label switching, but also scalable, power-efficient and programmable. Future improvements can be expected by using a different wavelength conversion technology and tunable laser power equalization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report optical-label switched optical packet routing with wavelength, time, and space domain contention resolution. Testing of the packet routing system under three contention scenarios demonstrated the successful contention resolution in the three domains and error free performance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated for the first time in our knowledge optical label-based wavelength switching and packet drop over actual field fiber. We have shown SCM-formatted optical labeling transmission with less than 2 dB power penalty for both label and payload over 476 km of fiber. The optical label switching achieves packet drop and re-transmission of the remaining packet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates an all-optical packet-based time-slot-interchanger using tunable wavelength conversion, field programmable gate array, N by N arrayed waveguide grating router pair and fiber delay lines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate an optical packet routing system with optical-label switching and 2R regeneration by combining tunable lasers, cross-phase modulation wavelength conversion, arrayed waveguide grating routers, and gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifier