[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacokinetics of sifuvirtide, a novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptide, in monkeys and to compare the inhibitory concentrations of sifuvirtide and enfuvirtide on HIV-1-infected-cell fusion.
Monkeys received 1.2 mg/kg iv or sc of sifuvirtide. An on-line solid-phase extraction procedure combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS) was established and applied to determine the concentration of sifuvirtide in monkey plasma. A four-(127)I iodinated peptide was used as an internal standard. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of sifuvirtide on cell fusion was determined by co-cultivation assay.
The assay was validated with good precision and accuracy. The calibration curve for sifuvirtide in plasma was linear over a range of 4.88-5000 microg/L, with correlation coefficients above 0.9923. After iv or sc administration, the observed peak concentrations of sifuvirtide were 10 626+/-2886 microg/L and 528+/-191 microg/L, and the terminal elimination half-lives (T(1/2)) were 6.3+/-0.9 h and 5.5+/-1.0 h, respectively. After sc, T(max) was 0.25-2 h, and the absolute bioavailability was 49%+/-13%. Sifuvirtide inhibited the syncytium formation between HIV-1 chronically infected cells and uninfected cells with an IC(50) of 0.33 microg/L.
An on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS approach was established for peptide pharmacokinetic studies. Sifuvirtide was rapidly absorbed subcutaneously into the blood circulation. The T(1/2) of sifuvirtide was remarkably longer than that of its analog, enfuvirtide, reported in healthy monkeys and it conferred a long-term plasma concentration level which was higher than its IC(50) in vitro.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacokinetics and accumulation of an Escherichia coli expressed His-tag fused recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) in Rhesus monkeys.
Rh-endostatin was iv or sc injected in Rhesus monkeys, and the rh-endostatin concentration in serum samples was determined by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. The serum drug concentration-time data were analyzed by compartmental analysis using the practical pharmacokinetic program 3p97.
Following iv administration at a dose rate of 1.5, 4.5, and 13.5 mg/kg in rhesus monkeys, the concentration-time curves of rh-endostatin were best fitted to a three-compartment open model. AUC(0-infinity) linearly increased with dose, while Cls exhibited no significant difference among different dose groups. The terminal half-lives (lambda3) were 8+/-8, 3.1+/-1.4, and 20+/-14 h, respectively. After sc administration at a dose rate of 1.5 mg/kg, the concentration-time curve was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with a terminal half-life (T(1/2beta)) of 8+/-3 h. Bioavailability following sc injection was approximately 70%+/-3%. After consecutive iv injection of rh-endostatin at a dose rate of 1.5 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) for 7 d, the AUC(0-24 h) substantially increased from 22+/-13 mg.h.L(-1) (d 1) to 50+/-29 mg.h.L(-1) (d 7), with an accumulation factor of 2.3+/-0.6 (P < 0.05).
The pharmacokinetic behavior of rh-endostatin in Rhesus monkeys complies with linear kinetics within the examined dose range. It tends to be accumulated in bodies after repeated administration at a dose level of 1.5 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) for more than 7 consecutive days.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the method for quantitation of the phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-ODNs) in plasma.
Two solid-phase extraction columns combined with a strong anion-exchange column were utilized to remove proteins and lipids in plasma, and the salts were removed by a reverse-phase column followed by dialysis with a 2500 Da-cutoff membrane. The concentration of the tested S-ODNs, PS20, and its metabolites extracted from the plasma were determined by the method of non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGCE) with diode array detection in the presence of internal standard (IS).
The method was with good base number specificity. Relative standard deviation % of both intra and inter assay were all less than 10 %, and the total mean recovery was about 91 %. The methodology was successfully used to determine the PK behavior of an anti-tumor antisense S-ODNs in monkeys and identify the metabolites with single base difference.
The combined method of solid-phase extraction and NGCE could be used to study the pharmacokinetics of S-ODNs, and the main parameters of the methodology met the requirement of PK study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize the antisense drug design by the combined method of phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction and to get ideal candidates.
The phylogenetic analysis and the secondary structure simulation were performed by computer. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) were designed against the full-conserved blocks with low local reaction free energy of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha mRNA. The in vitro effects of ODN were evaluated by human A549 lung carcinoma cells and mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells, the expression of target mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. The in vivo effects of ODN were also evaluated by models of A549 xenografts in nude mice and B16 melanoma in mice.
Three ODN had significantly lower IC50 values than that of ISIS3521, the positive control, on A549 cells in vitro. Five ODN inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 cells with IC50 <100 nmol/L, while IC50 of ISIS3521 was >200 nmol/L. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR showed that the best candidate AP1261 inhibited the expression of PKC-alpha at mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner. AP1261 inhibited the growth of A549 and B16 tumors in vivo at 0.005-0.5 mg.kg(-1).d(-1). The inhibitory rate of AP1261 on A549 tumors was greater than that of ISIS3521 at the same dose. ISIS3521 did not affect the growth of B16 tumors.
AP1261 may be of value as an antitumor agent or adjuvant and the combined method of phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction is a potential helpful tool for antisense drug design.
Preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and changes of kaolin partial thromboplastin time (KPTT) following single or multiple (7 d) dosing of a novel recombinant hirudin variant-2 (rHV-2) via the route of iv bolus injection (50 % of the total dose) plus infusion (the remained 50 % of the dose) in rhesus monkeys.
A crossover design was applied to research the PK and KPTT profiles of rHV-2 after single (with total dose at 1, 3, and 6 mg/kg, respectively) and multiple dosing (3 mg/kg). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was utilized to determine the level of rHV-2 in plasma.
The concentration profiles of rHV-2 during or after administration were dependent both on the loading dose and the infusion rate. Mean Cmax after bolus in three single dose groups were 2.90, 9.78, and 15.68 mg/L, respectively. Infusions at rate of 8.35, 25, and 50 g/kg/h in 1 h resulted in steady-state levels of 0.73-0.86, 1.94-2.04, and 5.41-5.59 mg/L, respectively. The plasma rHV-2 levels during or after administration among doses were significantly different at most of the time points. Area under concentration-time curve (AUC) increased linearly with dose but systemic clearances were similar among different groups. KPTT was significantly prolonged (compared with baseline) at all dose levels, and trended to increase with dose.
Both the loading dose and the infusion rate are very important for controlling the rHV-2 level, and the data may be helpful for optimizing dosage-regimen in clinical trials.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolism, distribution and excretion profiles of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in mice were studied by means of (125)I-labeled rhTPO ((125)I-rhTPO) combined with size exclusive high performance liquid chromatography (SHPLC) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation analysis. (125)I-rhTPO was prepared by iodogen method. Purification was performed on Sephacryl S-200 HR gel. Radioactive-purity of (125)I-rhTPO identified by SHPLC was (96.9 +/- 1.5)% (n = 3). The proliferation effect of TPO dependent cell line (TD-3) and the increase of peripheral platelet counts in mouse by (125)I-rhTPO demonstrated that (125)I-labeled protein maintained the biological activities of TPO both in vitro and in vivo. SHPLC analysis of serum and urine samples taken after sc 1 micro g/mouse (345 kBq/mouse) of (125)I-rhTPO revealed that there were two lower molecular weight (125)I-degradation metabolites ((125)I-MI and (125)I-MII) other than parent molecule. (125)I-MI was mainly found in urine, and (125)I-MII was detected both in serum and in urine. The maximal concentration of (125)I-rhTPO was reached at 2 hours after injection. The terminal half-life was 10.8 hours, which was much longer than those of other peptides. TCA precipitable radioactivity in tissue showed that the radioactivity in bone marrow was rather high. The highest level was found in urinary system. Levels in adrenals, lymph nodes, and fat were near to that in serum. Lowest was found in brain. The main excretion route was urinary system and (98 +/- 5.6)% of (125)I-rhTPO was excreted within 72 hours after dosing.
No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with inoperable, locally advanced, and inflammatory breast carcinoma (LAIBC), whether with supraclavicular lymph nodes (SLN) or not (stage IIIB and IV), usually carry an overall poor prognosis. The current treatment for these patients is by means of combined modality, including preoperative chemotherapy. This strategy has led to a substantial improvement in clinical response, making some patients operable, and even making breast conservative surgery possible. However, the long‐term results still are not promising. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of 3‐(4,5‐dimethyl‐thiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in vitro in directing chemotherapy (including preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy) for these patients. Between June 1994 and March 1997, 10 patients with inoperable LAIBC, whether with SLN or not, were enrolled. During the period of the combined therapy modalities, the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was adopted for three cycles according to the results of chemosensitivity in vitro by MTT assay. Then a modified radical or radical mastectomy was performed, which was followed by radiotherapy and further postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with the same regimen as that of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients had been followed up from the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to the end of October 1999. Two patients had clinical complete response (CRs), with one having pathologic CR in both breast tumor and axillary lymph node, and the other having pathologic CR in axillary lymph node. The other eight patients had partial response. By the time of analysis, six patients had been dead of relapse or progression. Among the four patients who were still alive, one had local relapse, one had distant metastatic disease, and the other two had no evident disease. By retrieving from MEDLINE before 1999, the authors learned that this is the first pilot study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for inoperable LAIBC using MTT assay to predict the chemosensitivity in vitro. Compared with conventional chemotherapy, the clinical response and long‐term results seem to be more encouraging.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · American Journal of Clinical Oncology