Xin-guo Hou

Shandong University, Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (7)17.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Europeans and Americans are gradually accepting the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) threshold of 6.5% for diagnosing diabetes proposed by the American Diabetes Association, but the cutoff of HbA1c for the Chinese population is unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older. Subjects and methods: In this study 8,239 subjects (5,496 women) 40-90 years of age underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test measurement after an overnight fast. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the World Health Organization criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of HbA1c, and the optimal cutoff was defined as the point on the receiver operating characteristic curve with the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for correlation analysis. Results: The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was 10.7% (880/8,239) and 19.0% (1,564/8,239), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were positively correlated with HbA1c level (r=0.725 and r=0.673, both P<0.001, respectively). For diagnosing diabetes, the AUC was 0.857 (95% confidence interval, 0.841-0.873), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 6.3%, with the largest Youden index being 0.581. For diagnosing prediabetes, the AUC was 0.681 (95% confidence interval, 0.666-0.697), and the optimal cutoff for HbA1c was 5.9%, with the largest Youden index being 0.280. Conclusions: An HbA1c threshold of 6.3% was highly valuable for diagnosing newly diagnosed diabetes, and a value of 5.9% was weakly valuable for diagnosing prediabetes in community-based Chinese adults 40 years of age or older.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Basal and adaptive β-cell regeneration capacity declines with old age, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is considered a multifunctional enzyme and transcription factor that regulates pancreatic β-cell death, regeneration and insulin secretion. We analyzed the capacity of β-cell regeneration in 2-month-old (young) and 12-month-old (old) wild-type (WT) and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice before and after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), a stimulus of β-cell regeneration and the underlying mechanism. Before STZ administration, young WT and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed similar β-cell proliferation. By contrast, old WT but not old PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed severely restricted β-cell proliferation. In further assessment of the adaptive β-cell regeneration capacity with age, we observed that with a single low dose of STZ, young WT and PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice showed a similar increase in β-cell proliferation, with few changes in old WT mice. Surprisingly, adaptive β-cell proliferation capacity was significantly higher in old PARP-1⁻/⁻ mice than old WT mice after STZ administration. The ability of β-cell mass to expand was associated with increased levels of the regenerating (Reg) genes RegI and RegII but not RegIV. Therefore, PARP-1 is a key regulator in β-cell regeneration with advancing age in mice.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia significantly stimulates pancreatic islet endothelial cell apoptosis; however, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, treating pancreatic islet endothelial (MS-1) cells with high glucose (30mmol/l) but not mannitol significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells as compared with a physiological glucose concentration (5.5mmol/l). Hyperglycemia significantly stimulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), relevant to MS-1 cell apoptosis. Moreover, induced reactive nitrogen species (RNS) significantly increased the expression of bax, cleaved caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) via JNK activation, but the expression of bcl-2 was not altered. Furthermore, SP600125 (a specific inhibitor of JNK) and 1400W (a specific inhibitor of iNOS) significantly attenuated cell apoptosis induced by high glucose. Therefore, hyperglycemia triggers MS-1 cell apoptosis by activating an intrinsic-dependent apoptotic pathway via RNS-mediated JNK activation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing studies suggest that the activity of GLP-1 might be of significant importance in the development of type 2 diabetes beyond its serum glucose-lowering effects. However, to date, the anti-apoptosis mechanism by which GLP-1 acts on MILE SVEN 1 (MS-1) cells has not been fully explored with regard to the intracellular signaling pathway. Increasing evidence shows that apoptosis of islet microvascular endothelial cells (IMECs) participates in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We wondered whether GLP-1 exerts its anti-apoptosis effects by inactivating the PARP-1/iNOS/NO pathway in oxidized low-density-lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced apoptosis in mouse IMECs (MS-1 cells), which may linked to GLP-1R/cAMP levels. MTT assay revealed that 2-h pre-incubation with GLP-1 markedly restored the oxLDL-induced loss of MS-1 viability in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in intracellular nitric oxide (NO) activity. Moreover, GLP-1 suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the activities of endogenous antioxidants, and decreased the level of NO. Pre-incubating MS-1 cells with GLP-1 reduced cell apoptosis. Finally, GLP-1 could efficiently prevent the upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1/nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase protein. Simultaneously, the expression of GLP-1 receptor and the level of cAMP was consistent with the administration of GLP-1. Our findings suggest that GLP-1 can effectively protect MS-1 cells against oxLDL-induced apoptosis, which may be important in preventing the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy and safety of (131)I therapy on hyperthyroidism in adolescents, middle-aged people, and the elderly. 940 patients with hyperthyroidism, 106 aged < 25 (Group A, group of young people), 768 aged 25 - 60 (Group B, middle-aged group), and 66 aged > 60 (Group C, group of the elderly), underwent (131)I therapy and were followed up for 2 years to evaluate the efficacy and safety. Forty-six patients in group A (43.4%) became euthyroid, 34(32.1%) turned better, 24 (22.6%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 2 (1.9%) remained un-changed, with a general effective rate of 98.11% (104/106). 346 patients (45.1%) in Group B became euthyroid, 260 (33.9%) turned better, 140 (18.2%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 22 (2.9%) remained un-changed, with a general effective rate of 97.14% (746/768). And 28 patients (42.4%)in Group C became euthyroid, 24 (36.4%) turned better, 10 (15.15%) suffered from hypothyroidism, and 4 (6.1%) remained unchanged, with a general effective rate of 93.93% (62/66). There were not significant differences in the recovery rate, improvement rate, hypothyroidism rat, and ineffective rate among the 3 groups (all P > 0.05). There are no significant differences in the efficacy and safety of (131)I therapy in hyperthyroidism on the patients of different ages, including adolescent, adult and elder persons. (131)I therapy is safe and effective for adolescents.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
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    ABSTRACT: The delivery of glucose from the blood to the brain involves its passage across the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT(1)), and then across the neural cell membranes, which is mediated by GLUT(3). This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic influence of hyperglycemia on the expression of these GLUTs by measuring their expression in the brain at different blood glucose levels in a rat model of diabetes. This might help to determine the proper blood glucose threshold level in the treatment of diabetic apoplexy. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin (STZ) in 30 rats. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetic group without blood glucose control (group DM1), diabetic rats treated with low dose insulin (group DM2), and diabetic rats treated with high dose insulin (group DM3). The mRNA and protein levels of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal control rats, the GLUT(1) mRNA was reduced by 46.08%, 29.80%, 19.22% (P < 0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively; and the GLUT(3) mRNA was reduced by 75.00%, 46.75%, and 17.89% (P < 0.01) in DM1, DM2, and DM3 group, respectively. The abundance of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) proteins had negative correlation with the blood glucose level (P < 0.01). The density of microvessels in the brain of diabetic rats did not change significantly compared with normal rats. Chronic hyperglycemia downregulates GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the rat brain, which is not due to the decrease of the density of microvessels. The downregulation of GLUT(1) and GLUT(3) expression might be the adaptive reaction of the body to prevent excessive glucose entering the cell that may lead to cell damage.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Chinese medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), would provide a potentially unlimited source of islet cells for transplantation and alleviate the major limitations of availability and allogeneic rejection. Therefore, the utilization of stem cells is becoming the most promising therapy for diabetes mellitus (DM). Here, we studied the differentiation capacity of the diabetic patient's bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and tested the feasibility of using MSCs for beta-cell replacement. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from 10 DM patients (5 type 1 DM and 5 type 2 DM) and induced to IPCs under a three-stage protocol. Representative cell surface antigen expression profiles of MSCs were analysed by flow cytometric analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect multiple genes related to pancreatic beta-cell development and function. The identity of the IPCs was illustrated by the analysis of morphology, ditizone staining and immunocytochemistry. Release of insulin by these cells was confirmed by immunoradioassay. Flow cytometric analysis of MSCs at passage 3 showed that these cells expressed high levels of CD29 (98.28%), CD44 (99.56%) and CD106 (98.34%). Typical islet-like cell clusters were observed at the end of the protocol (18 days). Ditizone staining and immunohistochemistry for insulin were both positive. These differentiated cells at stage 2 (10 days) expressed nestin, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), Neurogenin3, Pax4, insulin, glucagon, but at stage 3 (18 days) we observed the high expression of PDX-1, insulin, glucagon. Insulin was secreted by these cells in response to different concentrations of glucose stimulation in a regulated manner (P<0.05). Bone marrow-derived MSCs from DM patients can differentiate into functional IPCs under certain conditions in vitro. Using diabetic patient's own bone marrow-derived MSCs as a source of autologous IPCs for beta-cell replacement would be feasible.
    Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Chinese medical journal

Publication Stats

149 Citations
17.79 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2014
    • Shandong University
      • Key Laboratory for Cardiovascular Remodelling and Function Research
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China