[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol cues can precipitate the desire to drink and cause relapse in recovering alcohol-dependent patients. Serotonin and dopamine may play a role in alcohol cue-induced craving. Acute combined tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and phenylalanine (Phe) depletion (CMD) in the diet attenuates the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine in the human brain. However, no study of the effects of acute CMD has been previously conducted. Therefore, we investigated whether the attenuation of serotonin and dopamine synthesis changes cue-induced alcohol craving in recently abstinent alcoholics.
In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 male patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for alcohol dependence were divided into two conditions: (1) monoamine depletion (i.e., consumption of a concentrated amino acid beverage that resulted in a rapid and significant decrease in plasma-free Tyr/Phe/Trp) and (2) balanced condition (i.e., consumption of a similar beverage that contained Tyr/Phe/Trp). The participants were scheduled for two experimental sessions, with an interval of ≥7 days. The cue-induced craving test session was conducted 6h after each amino acid beverage administration. Drinking urge, blood pressure, heart rate, working memory, and attention/psychomotor performance were assessed before and after administration.
Compared with the balanced condition, the monoamine depletion condition significantly increased drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure. Cognitive performance was not different between the two conditions.
Acute combined serotonin and dopamine depletion may increase drinking intention/desire and diastolic blood pressure without influencing cognitive function.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central dopaminergic system plays a critical role in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, which are key determinants in the urge to smoke. Previous study has demonstrated that immediate administration of 10-mg aripiprazole significantly decreased various subjective responses to smoking. The present study investigated whether 2-week treatment with 10-mg aripiprazole could attenuate waking and postprandial urges to smoke in Chinese male and female heavy smokers. A randomized and placebo-controlled pilot clinical study was conducted to assess the effect of aripiprazole on various responses to smoking. The primary outcomes were subject's ratings on questionnaires of smoking urge, withdrawal syndromes, and cigarette evaluation. All participants were administered either placebo or 10-mg aripiprazole for 2 weeks. Throughout the experiment, participants were required to self-report (1) smoking urge and nicotine withdrawal symptoms before their first cigarette after awakening and after lunch and (2) subjective responses to the first cigarette smoked of the day and after lunch. Aripiprazole was associated with significantly decreased waking and postprandial urges to smoke. Aripiprazole failed to produce a significant effect on overall nicotine withdrawal symptoms after awakening and after lunch. However, waking, but not postprandial, withdrawal craving and syndromes were significantly reduced by aripiprazole. Aripiprazole had no effect on the overall subjective responses to the first cigarette of the day and after lunch. The attenuating effects of aripiprazole on waking and postprandial urges to smoke demonstrate the promising effect of aripiprazole in the treatment of nicotine dependence.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of clinical psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug addiction researchers have begun to study dopamine partial agonists as potential therapeutic agents. The partial dopamine D(2) receptor agonist aripiprazole has recently been tested as a treatment for stimulant and alcohol dependence in both animal and clinical studies.
A randomized and placebo-controlled pilot clinical study was conducted in a population of Chinese light and heavy smokers to assess the effect of aripiprazole on various responses to smoking. The primary outcomes were subject's ratings on questionnaires of smoking urge, withdrawal syndromes, and cigarette evaluation. Placebo, 5, and 10mg aripiprazole were acutely administered in all participants, with administrations at least 7 days apart. Subjective responses to a smoked cigarette, working memory, and attention/psychomotor performance were assessed before and after drug administration in each experimental session. Abstinence-induced smoking urge, withdrawal symptoms, blood pressure, and heart rate were also measured every 45 min after drug administration. Finally, a cue-testing session was carried out 4h after each drug administration.
Administration of 10mg aripiprazole significantly decreased both the subjective response and psychological reward derived from smoking a cigarette in heavy smokers. While neither 5 nor 10mg aripiprazole significantly decreased abstinence-induced smoking urges or withdrawal symptoms in light and heavy smokers, these doses substantially attenuated drug cue-induced smoking urges in heavy smokers. Aripiprazole did not affect working memory or attention/psychomotor performance.
Light and heavy smokers responded differently to aripiprazole across various dependent measures. Aripiprazole may potentially affect various subjective responses to smoking in heavy smokers.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Drug and alcohol dependence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to assess social support and demographic factors that influence the success of smoking cessation aided with sublingual nicotine tablets in a Han Chinese population.
We randomly allocated 211 Beijing residents who smoked >or= 10 cigarettes a day for at least 1 year into a double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-month randomized smoking cessation trial using sublingual nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Self-reports of sustained smoking cessation were verified during the study by expired carbon monoxide concentrations and urine-cotinine concentrations. Logistic regression analysis used an intent to treat sample for sociodemographic associations with abstinence and reduction in smoking.
The abstinence rates at the end of treatment for NRT vs. placebo were 52 % vs .19%, and smoking reduction (reduced to at least 50% of baseline) rates for NRT vs. placebo were 43% vs .15% for a total response rate with NRT of 95% for either stopping completely or reducing smoking by 50%. The only factor strongly associated with successful smoking cessation after 3 months of sublingual NRT was being married (adjusted odds ratio 2.18; 95%confidence interval 1.10-4.33). Smoking association, on the other hand, was associated with being married and with employment as a white collar worker (2.24; 1.03 to 4.86).
These findings suggest the need for a more in-depth examination of the impact of being married and employment as a white collar worker (rather than manual laborer) in order to develop better targeted interventions for improving smoking cessation interventions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse