[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several research groups have recently reported that persistent GB virus C (GBV-C) co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to slower AIDSs disease progression than HIV-1 infection alone. However, these findings were not confirmed by several other studies. To investigate the association between GBV-C replication and plasma HIV loads and CD4+ T cell counts, 203 HIV-1 positive former blood/plasma donors(FBDs) were enrolled from Fuyang city of Anhui Province in China. Plasma specimens were collected from them and were tested for GBV-C using RT-PCR and ELISA. Out of 203 specimens, 52 (25.6%) cases were positive for GBV-C, including 35 male (67.3%) and 17 female (32.7%) cases. No significant association was identified between GBV-C infection and CD4+ T-cell counts or between GBV-C infection and HIV viral loads. Since all the subjects studied were naive to ART, the influence of therapy on AIDS disease progression was ruled out in this study. Overall, our data indicated that HIV-1 positive male FBDs were prone to be infected, GBV-C coinfection with HIV-1 does not significantly influence HIV/AIDS disease progression during the late stage of chronic HIV-1 infection.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology / [bian ji, Bing du xue bao bian ji wei yuan hui]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Man who has sex with man (MSM) is one of the high risk groups for spreading HIV/AIDS. It was reported that the most prevalent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain among MSM is subtype B; however, T cell immunity remains unknown across the HIV-1 B genome in this population.
Using Elispot assay with synthetic peptides spanning the sequence of HIV-1 consensus B, HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte responses were quantified among 3 treated and 19 untreated HIV-1 infected MSM from Beijing, China. Cross-sectional association between viral loads and cellular immune responses were analyzed.
Peptide pools corresponding to each HIV-1 protein were used for Env, Gag, Pol, Nef, Tat/Rev, Vpr/Vpu and Vif. The results showed that the magnitude of T cell responses in the 3 treated HIV(+) MSM group [median, 770 spot forming cells (SFCs) per 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)] might be significantly lower than that in the 19 untreated HIV(+) MSM group (median, 6175 SFCs per 10(6) PBMCs). Nef, Gag and Pol are the most frequently targeted HIV-1 antigens; and 16 subjects (73%) were identified with vigorous T cell immunity against each of these three proteins. The overall magnitude of T cell immunity closely related to its breadth (r = 0.72, P < 0.05) and was inversely but weakly associated with viral loads (r = -0.15). Further analysis showed that both Gag (r = -0.24) and Pol specific T cells (r = -0.12) contributed to this inverse association whereas Nef specific T cells showed no association with viral loads.
The magnitude of HIV-1 specific T cells is inversely but weakly associated with viral loads among MSM; HIV-specific T cell responses against conservative sequences (Gag and Pol) are the main contributors to this association among Chinese HIV(+) MSM. These findings have important implications for vaccine design.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the strategy to raise both mucosal and systemic anti-HIV-1 immunity.
Eighteen BALB/c rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental group and control group. The experimental group were further subdivided into 4 subgroups of 3 mice: 3-dose HIV DNA vaccine group, 3-dose DNA vaccine + cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant subgroup, 1-dose recombinant Tiantan strain vaccinia-based vaccine subgroup, and 3-dose DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant + Tiantan strain vaccinia-based vaccine subgroup. The control group was subdivided into 2 subgroups of 3 mice: 3-dose DNA blank vector subgroup, and 3-dose DNA blank vector + Tiantan strain vaccinia-based vaccine subgroup. Intranasal administration of DNA vaccine-based vaccine (10 microg) was done on the days 0, 14, and 28 as the mucosal priming, and recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (1 x 10(7) PFU) was injected intramuscularly as systemic boosting on the day 42. On the day 56 the mice were killed and specimens of serum, nasopharynx wash, lung wash, and spleen were collected and splenocytes were isolated. Splenocytes were added into the phosphate-buffered saline with anti-mouse interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) envelop antibody to count the number of spot-forming cells (SFCs). Indirect ELISA was used to detect the HIV-1 specific antibody in the nasopharynx wash and lung wash. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the intracellular staining of IFN-gamma in the splenocytes.
The number of spot forming cells in the HIV-1 DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant group was (14 +/- 11) SFCs/10(6) splenocytes, significantly more than that of the HIV-1 DNA vaccine group [(2 +/- 1) SFCs/10(6) spleen cells (P < 0.01). The number of SFCs of the 1-dose DNA-vaccine subgroup was [(30 +/- 18) SFCs/10(6) spleen cells], significantly higher than that of the only DNS vaccine group (P < 0.01). The number of SFCs of DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant + recombinant Tiantan vaccinia-based vaccine was (61 +/- 35) SFCs/10(6) splenocytes, significantly higher than those of the other groups (all P < 0.01). Flow cytometry showed that the rate of HIV-1 Gag specific CD8(+) T cell was 1.8% +/- 1.4%. The value of specific IgG of the DNA vaccine + adjuvant + Tiantan vaccinia-based vaccine was 1.50 +/- 0.30, significantly higher than those of the blank vector, single-dose Tiantan vaccinia-based vaccine, and single-dose DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant subgroups (0.42 +/- 0.02, 0.74 +/- 0.13, and 0.75 +/- 0.02 respectively, all P < 0.05). In different subgroups the levels of specific IgA in the lung wash were all higher than those in the nasopharynx wash. The levels of specific IgA in the lung and nasopharynx wash of the DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant subgroup were higher than those of the other subgroups whether or not with boosting of Tiantan. The specific IgA levels of the groups enhanced by Tiantan vaccinia-based vaccine were all significantly higher than those of the corresponding subgroups without enhancement (all P < 0.01). The IgA level of lung wash of the DNA vaccine + CT adjuvant subgroup was 1.82 +/- 0.76, significantly higher than that of the one-dose Tiantan vaccinia-based vaccine group (0.52 +/- 0.19, P < 0.05).
The vaccination modality of mucosal priming and systemic boosting induces both mucosal and systemic immune responses.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi