[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CCL11 (Eotaxin) is a potent eosinophil chemoattractant that is abundant in atheromatous plaques. The major receptor for CCL11 is CCR3, which is found on leukocytes and on some nonleukocytic cells. We sought to determine whether vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) possessed functional CCR3.
CCR3 mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by Western blot analysis and flow cytometry) were present in mouse aortic SMCs. CCL11 induced concentration-dependent SMC chemotaxis in a modified Boyden chamber, with maximum effect seen at 100 ng/mL. SMC migration was markedly inhibited by antibody to CCR3, but not to CCR2. CCL11 also induced CCR3-dependent SMC migration in a scrape-wound assay. CCL11 had no effect on SMC proliferation. CCR3 and CCL11 staining were minimal in the normal arterial wall, but were abundant in medial SMC and intimal SMC 5 days and 28 days after mouse femoral arterial injury, respectively, times at which SMCs possess a more migratory phenotype.
These data demonstrate that SMCs possess CCR3 under conditions associated with migration and that CCL11 is a potent chemotactic factor for SMCs. Because CCL11 is expressed abundantly in SMC-rich areas of the atherosclerotic plaque and in injured arteries, it may play an important role in regulating SMC migration.
Preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SM-20 encodes an intracellular prolyl hydroxylase that acts on hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. By decreasing HIF-alpha, SM-20 is thought to modulate the expression of hypoxia-regulated genes. SM-20 expression in the arterial wall is restricted to smooth muscle cells, which play a critical role in atherosclerosis and arterial injury. To further elucidate the regulation of SM-20 in smooth muscle, we cloned and analyzed the rat SM-20 promoter. In transient transfections, the SM-20 promoter displayed approximately 6-fold greater activity in smooth muscle cells vs. fibroblasts. Deletion analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that SM-20 transcription was regulated by two Sp1/Sp3 sites. A shift in binding to the Sp1/Sp3 sites, a decrease in Sp1 and Sp3 protein levels, and the emergence of a lower molecular weight form of Sp1 were seen in serum-deprived or post-confluent SMC, suggesting that SM-20 is regulated during smooth muscle cell differentiation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 is abundant in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques and in the injured arterial wall. MCP-1 and its receptor, CCR2, are important mediators of macrophage accumulation and atherosclerotic plaque progression. We have recently reported that CCR2(-/-) mice have a approximately 60% decrease in intimal hyperplasia and medial DNA synthesis in response to femoral arterial injury. We have now examined the response to femoral arterial injury in MCP-1(-/-) mice. MCP-1 deficiency was associated with a approximately 30% reduction in intimal hyperplasia at 4 weeks and was not associated with diminished medial DNA synthesis. Despite inducing tissue factor in SMC culture, MCP-1 deficiency was not associated with a decrease in neointimal tissue factor after injury. These data suggest that MCP-1 and CCR2 deficiencies have distinct effects on arterial injury. The effects of MCP-1 on intimal hyperplasia may be mediated largely through SMC migration.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 is upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques and in the media and intima of injured arteries. CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is the only known functional receptor for MCP-1. Mice deficient in MCP-1 or CCR2 have marked reductions in atherosclerosis. This study examines the effect of CCR2 deficiency in a murine model of femoral arterial injury. Four weeks after injury, arteries from CCR2(-/-) mice showed a 61.4% reduction (P<0.01) in intimal area and a 62% reduction (P<0.05) in intima/media ratio when compared with CCR2(+/+) littermates. The response of CCR2(+/-) mice was not significantly different from that of CCR2(+/+) mice. Five days after injury, the medial proliferation index, determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was decreased by 59.8% in CCR2(-/-) mice when compared with CCR2(+/+) littermates (P<0.05). Although leukocytes rapidly adhered to the injured arterial surface, there was no significant macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall of either CCR2(-/-) or CCR2(+/+) mice 5 and 28 days after injury. These results demonstrate that CCR2 plays an important role in mediating smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a non-hyperlipidemic model of acute arterial injury. CCR2 may thus be an important target for inhibiting the response to acute arterial injury.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biochemical regulation of collagen deposition during adult cutaneous wound repair is poorly understood. Likewise, how collagen is perceived and modulated in fetal scarless healing remains unknown. Recently, discoidin domain receptors-1 and 2 (DDR1 and DDR2) with tyrosine kinase activity have been identified as novel receptors for collagen. In light of these findings, it was speculated that the production of collagen receptors DDR1 and DDR2 by fetal fibroblasts may be temporally regulated to correlate with the ontogeny of embryonic scar formation. More specifically, because DDRs directly bind collagen and transmit the signals intracellularly, it was hypothesized that they may play an important role in fetal scarless healing by ultimately regulating and modulating collagen production and organization. As part of a fundamental assessment to elucidate the role of DDRs in scarless fetal wound repair, the endogenous expression of DDR1, DDR2, collagen I, and total collagen, as a function of fetal Sprague-Dawley rat skin fibroblasts of different gestational ages, representing scar-free (<E16.5 days) and scar-forming (>E16.5) periods was determined. Using explanted dermal fibroblasts of gestational days E13.5, E16.5, E18.5, and E21.5 (term gestation = 21.5 days) fetuses (n = 92), [3H]proline incorporation assay and Northern and Western blotting analysis were performed to compare the expressions of these molecules with scar-free and scar-forming stages of embryonic development. These results revealed a pattern of increasing collagen production with increasing gestational ages, whereas DDR1 expression decreased with increasing gestational age. This observation suggests that elevated levels of DDR1 may play an important role in scarless tissue regeneration by early gestation fetal fibroblasts. In contrast, DDR2 was expressed by fetal rat fibroblasts at a similar level throughout gestation. These data demonstrate for the first time the temporal expression of collagen and DDR tyrosine kinases in fetal rat fibroblasts as a function of gestational ages. Overall, these data suggest that differential temporal expression of the above-mentioned molecules during fetal skin development may play an important role in the ontogeny of scar formation. Future studies will involve the characterization of the biomolecular functions of these receptor kinases during fetal wound repair.
No preview · Article · Mar 2001 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With recent progress in stem cell-based research, there has been tremendous interest in stem cell-based tissue regeneration. Stem cells can be differentiated into specialized cells/tissues by growth factors and cytokines. These small molecules are thought to play an important role in both wound healing and tissue regeneration. However, their biological activity and signal transduction during tissue regeneration are poorly understood. With recent advances in signal transduction by growth factors, the receptor kinases and G protein-coupled receptors, an understanding in the underlying mechanism of how these factors regulate tissue regeneration beginning to take place. In this review, the potential underlying mechanisms of growth factor signaling in normal tissue regeneration and chronic wound healing is discussed. Thus, it is an aim to provide a basis for designing more specific therapies for tissue regeneration in the near future.
Preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The remarkable ability of the fetus to heal early gestation skin wounds without scarring remains poorly understood. Taking advantage of recent advances in signal transduction, the tyrosine phosphorylation patterns of fetal rat fibroblasts, representing the scarless cutaneous repair phenotype, and adult rat fibroblasts, representing scarforming phenotype, were examined whether there were inherent differences in cellular signaling. Specifically, correlation of the phosphorylation patterns with the expression levels of the signaling molecules that transmit information from the plasma membrane receptor to the nucleus was sought. By using three different cell lines of explanted fibroblasts from gestational day 13 fetal rat skin (n = 24) and 1-month-old postnatal adult rat skin (n = 3), immunoblotting was performed to compare tyrosine phosphorylation patterns. The results revealed five major protein bands of interest in fetal rat fibroblasts, but not in the adult rat fibroblasts. These phosphorylated protein bands are of interest because of their possible role in wound repair and may have the potential to regulate cellular responses to the extracellular matrix and their secondary signaling molecules. It was hypothesized that these bands represented receptor tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor receptor, and discoidin domain receptor 1, and their downstream adaptor protein Shc that binds receptor tyrosine kinases to transduce signals intracellularly. Furthermore, elevated expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta in adult compared with fetal fibroblasts was demonstrated, suggesting that decreased expression of certain growth factors may also be important for the scarless phenomenon to occur.
No preview · Article · Apr 2000 · Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keloids represent a pathological response to cutaneous injury, creating disfiguring scars with no known satisfactory treatment. They are characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix, especially collagen. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloids. The three TGF-beta isoforms identified in mammals (TGF-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3), are thought to have different biological activities in wound healing. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 are believed to promote fibrosis and scar formation, whereas TGF-beta3 has been shown to be either scar inducing or reducing, depending on the study. The aim of this study was to characterize expression of TGF-beta isoforms in keloids at the protein level using Western blot analysis. The authors found that TGF-beta1 and -beta2 proteins were at higher levels in keloid fibroblast cultures compared with normal human dermal fibroblast cultures. In contrast, the expression of TGF-beta3 protein was comparable in both the normal (N = 3) and keloid (N = 3) cell lines. These findings, demonstrating increased TGF-beta1 and -beta2 protein expression in keloids relative to normal human dermal fibroblasts further support the roles of TGF-beta1 and -beta2 as fibrosis-inducing cytokines.
No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Annals of Plastic Surgery