[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease amongst the Saharia, a 'primitive' tribe of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.
A community-based cross-sectional TB prevalence survey was undertaken in the Saharia, a 'primitive' tribal community of Madhya Pradesh. A representative random sample of villages predominated by tribal populations was chosen from the selected block of Sheopur District. All eligible individuals were screened for chest symptoms related to TB. Sputum samples were collected from all eligible individuals, transported to the laboratory, and examined by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy and solid media culture methods.
Of the 11,468 individuals eligible for screening, 11,116 (96.9%) were screened for symptoms. The overall prevalence of pulmonary TB disease was 1518 per 100,000 population. Prevalence increased with age and the trend was statistically significant (p<0.001). The prevalence of pulmonary TB was also significantly higher in males (2156/100,000) than females (933/100,000) (p<0.001).
The findings suggest that TB disease remains a major public health problem in the Saharia 'primitive' tribal community of Madhya Pradesh, Central India.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a prevalence survey of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) disease in the tribal population of Madhya Pradesh state, central India.
A community-based cross-sectional tuberculosis (TB) disease prevalence survey was undertaken among adults aged > or = 15 years in the tribal population of Madhya Pradesh. A multistage stratified cluster sampling was adopted. A representative random sample of villages predominated by tribal populations was selected from 11 districts. All eligible individuals were questioned for chest symptoms relating to TB. Sputum samples were collected from all eligible individuals, transported to the laboratory, and examined by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy and solid media culture methods.
Of the 23,411 individuals eligible for screening, 22,270 (95.1%) were screened for symptoms. The overall proportion of symptomatic individuals was 7.9%. Overall prevalence (culture and/or smear positive) of PTB was 387 [95% confidence interval (CI): 273-502] per 100,000 population. The prevalence increased with age and was also significantly higher among males (554/100,000; 95% CI: 415-693) as compared with females (233/100,000; 95% CI: 101-364) (P < 0.001).
The findings suggest that the TB situation amongst the tribal population is not that different from the situation among the non-tribal population in the country. However, TB remains a major public health problem amongst the tribal population and there is a need to maintain and further strengthen TB control measures on a sustained and long-term basis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · International Journal of Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) among tribal children of Madhya Pradesh, central India.
Community-based, cross-sectional tuberculin survey among children aged 1-9 years in the tribal population of Madhya Pradesh. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used to select a representative random sample of villages predominated by tribal population from selected districts. A total of 4802 children were tuberculin-tested with 1TU of PPD RT 23 and the reaction sizes read after 72 h.
A total of 3062 (64%) children had no BCG scar. The frequency distribution of children by reaction sizes indicated a fair mode at 18 mm in the right hand side of the distribution. By mirror-image technique, the prevalence of infection among children with no recognizable BCG scar was estimated as 6.8% (95% CI: 4.8-8.9%). The ARTI was computed as 1.3% (0.9-1.7%). The corresponding figures for children irrespective of scar status were 7.1% (95% CI: 5.5-8.8%) and 1.3% (1.0-1.7%) respectively.
The risk of tuberculosis infection in tribal population of Madhya Pradesh, central India is not different from other areas of the country. There is, however, a need to further intensify tuberculosis control measures on a sustained and long-term basis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional tuberculin survey was carried out to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection and the annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) among children of Saharia, a primitive ethnic group in Madhya Pradesh, Central India. A total of 1341 children aged 1-9 years were subjected to tuberculin testing with 1 TU of PPD RT 23 and the reaction sizes were read after 72 h. The proportion of BCG scar-positive children was 34.6%. The frequency distribution of children by reaction sizes indicated a clear-cut anti-mode at 11 mm and a mode at 18 mm at the right-hand side of the distribution. The prevalence of infection among children irrespective of BCG scar was estimated as 20.4% (95% CI 18.2-22.5%) and the ARTI was 3.9% (95% CI 3.5-4.3%). The corresponding figures were 21.1% (95% CI 18.3-23.8%) and 3.9% (95% CI 3.4-4.5%) among BCG scar-negative children and 19.0% (95% CI 15.4-22.5%) and 4.0% (95% CI 3.2-4.8%) among BCG scar-positive children. The findings of the present study show a high prevalence of tuberculous infection and high ARTI in this primitive ethnic group. There is an urgent need to further intensify tuberculosis control measures on a sustained and long-term basis in this area.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the tribal population of central India.
A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the tribal population of Jabalpur district. Blood samples were drawn from 326 patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and 526 randomly selected adults. These were tested for HIV, HBV, HCV, and HSV-2 using commercial ELISA kits.
The prevalence of IgG antibodies to HSV-2 was 20.8% in STI patients compared to 12.4% in the general population. The HBV carriage rate was 3.4% in STI patients against 2.9% in the general population. HCV prevalence was 3.9% in STI patients and 4.6% in the general population. No HIV infection was found in the study population.
In view of the high prevalence of viral STIs in the tribal community of Central India, there is a need to strengthen the STI control program in this under-privileged group.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five hundred and eighty preschool children belonging to tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh were followed up daily for the presence of diarrhoea for a period of 1 year. In all, 1236 episodes of diarrhoea were recorded with an average of 2.13 episodes per child per year. Stool samples were collected during 780 episodes. They were cultured to isolate Escherichia coli as well as non-E. coli enteropathogens. Ten different genes were detected to identify all diarrhoeagenic E. coli using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the commonest diarrhoeagenic E. coli and was isolated from 64 children, followed by enteropathogenic E. coli (27), enterotoxigenic E. coli (10) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (2). Other enteropathogens detected were bacteria such as Shigella sp, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp, parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Entameba histolytica, and rotavirus. Most of the bacterial pathogens were multi-drug resistant. The study shows that diarrhoeagenic E. coli contribute significantly to the burden of acute diarrhoea in tribal preschool children.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Three fourth of deaths in burn patients occur due to infections. The objective behind this work was to find out the bacteriological profile of post burn infections in blood and wound in first week along with the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the organisms isolated. Fifty burn patients were investigated for bacterial profile of blood and burn wound infections. Specimens were collected on 3rd and 5th day of burns in the form of blood and wound swabs. The organisms were isolated and identified by standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Gram negative organisms were found to be more prevalent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolate followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, E.coli, Klebsiella and Salmonella. In most of the cases, same organisms were found in blood and pus sample. Amikacin, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin and cephotaxime were more effective antimicrobials while Co-trimaxazole, Amoxyclav and Ceforperazone were found to be the least effective. Psudomonas was found to be resistant to most of the therapeutic agents. The study emphasizes the need to introduce strict aseptic measures in burns ward and to formulate an antibiotic policy in the hospital.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients having sexually transmitted diseases are at a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. The present study attempts to analyze the trend of HIV infection and the risk factors among STD clinic attendees in central India. Of the 2264 patients tested, 36 were sero-positive for HIV, giving a prevalence rate of 1.6%. HIV sero-positivity was almost constant over the years (2000 - 2004), thus indicating that central India continues to be a low prevalence area. Various factors associated with HIV infection were male sex, illiteracy and migration. Truck drivers and individuals having genital ulcers seemed to be more susceptible to HIV infection. The study highlights a need for continuation and strict monitoring of the ongoing intervention program in order to maintain or reduce this low level of HIV prevalence.