[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop novel immunoprotective alginate microcapsule formulations containing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that may increase cell function, provide immunoprotection for xenografted cells, and simultaneously enable multimodality imaging.
All animal experiments were approved by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Cadaveric human islet cells were encapsulated with alginate, poly-l-lysine, and perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) or perfluoropolyether (PFPE). In vitro viability and the glucose-stimulation index for insulin were determined over the course of 2 weeks and analyzed by using a cross-sectional time series regression model. The sensitivity of multimodality (computed tomography [CT], ultrasonography [US], and fluorine 19 [(19)F] magnetic resonance [MR] imaging) detection was determined for fluorocapsules embedded in gel phantoms. C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally receiving 6000 PFOB-labeled (n = 6) or 6000 PFPE-labeled (n = 6) islet-containing fluorocapsules and control mice intraperitoneally receiving 6000 PFOB-labeled (n = 6) or 6000 PFPE-labeled (n = 6) fluorocapsules without islets were monitored for human C-peptide (insulin) secretion during a period of 55 days. Mice underwent (19)F MR imaging at 9.4 T and micro-CT. Swine (n = 2) receiving 9000 PFOB capsules through renal artery catheterization were imaged with a clinical multidetector CT scanner. Signal intensity was evaluated by using a paired t test.
Compared with nonfluorinated alginate microcapsules, PFOB fluorocapsules increased insulin secretion of encapsulated human islets, with values up to 18.5% (3.78 vs 3.19) at 8-mmol/L glucose concentration after 7 days in culture (P < .001). After placement of the immunoprotected encapsulated cells into mice, a sustained insulin release was achieved with human C-peptide levels of 19.1 pmol/L ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 33.0 pmol/L ± 1.0 for PFPE and PFOB capsules, respectively. Fluorocapsules were readily visualized with (19)F MR imaging, US imaging, and CT with research- and clinical-grade imagers for all modalities.
Fluorocapsules enhance glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion in vitro, enable long-term insulin secretion by xenografted islet cells in vivo, and represent a novel contrast agent platform for multimodality imaging.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively test, in a porcine model, the hypothesis that catheter-directed gastric artery chemical embolization (GACE) can result in suppression of systemic ghrelin levels and affect weight gain.
This study, which had Animal Care and Use Committee approval, was performed in healthy, growing swine (weight range, 40-45 kg; n = 10). GACE was performed in five swine with the infusion of sodium morrhuate (125 mug) selectively into the gastric arteries that supply the fundus. Five control animals underwent a sham procedure with 5 mL of saline. Weight and fasting plasma ghrelin levels were obtained in animals at baseline and in weeks 1-4. Statistical testing for substantial differences in ghrelin blood levels over time and between treated and untreated animals was performed by using a cross-sectional time-series linear model with feasibility generalized least squares.
The pattern of the change in ghrelin levels over time was significantly different between control and treated animals (P < .004). In treated animals, ghrelin levels were significantly reduced at week 1 (mean, 664.1 pg/mL +/- 103.1 [standard error of the mean], P < .02), week 2 (mean, 618.1 pg/mL +/- 180.4, P < .001), week 3 (mean, 578.4 pg/mL +/- 214.9, P < .001), and week 4 (mean, 876.6 pg/mL +/- 228.6, P < .03) relative to baseline (mean, 1006.3 pg/mL +/- 190.1). The percentage change in serum ghrelin values in swine treated with GACE decreased from baseline to -34%, -38.6%, -42.5%, and -12.9% during weeks 1-4, respectively. In control swine, percentage change in serum ghrelin was -1.7%, -9.7%, +2.6%, and +18.2% during weeks 1-4, respectively. At the end of 4 weeks, control swine continued to gain weight, with a 15.1% increase from their original weight, while the weight in swine treated with GACE plateaued at an increase of 7.8% from the original weight.
Catheter-directed GACE can suppress the appetite hormone ghrelin and affect weight gain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In type I diabetes mellitus, islet transplantation provides a moment-to-moment fine regulation of insulin. Success rates vary widely, however, necessitating suitable methods to monitor islet delivery, engraftment and survival. Here magnetic resonance–trackable magnetocapsules have been used simultaneously to immunoprotect pancreatic -cells and to monitor, non-invasively in real-time, hepatic delivery and engraftment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetocapsules were detected as single capsules with an altered magnetic resonance appearance on capsule rupture. Magnetocapsules were functional in vivo because mouse -cells restored normal glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and human islets induced sustained C-peptide levels in swine. In this large-animal model, magnetocapsules could be precisely targeted for infusion by using magnetic resonance fluoroscopy, whereas MRI facilitated monitoring of liver engraftment over time. These findings are directly applicable to ongoing improvements in islet cell transplantation for human diabetes, particularly because our magnetocapsules comprise clinically applicable materials.