Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz

Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (20)32.27 Total impact

  • Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz · Michael Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: For the confirmation of Ag 85 in ancient and recent ECM of native macerated human bone, five cases were investigated. In three individuals, highly positive results for Ag 85 were identified in Western blot: 1) a male from Arzhan, South Siberia, dating from the 7th century BC, 2) a male from Kirchberg in Hesse, Germany, dating from the 10th - 12th century AD and 3) a recent female with a proven diagnosis of TB. As a negative control, a recent male is presented who did not suffer from TB. In another recent male, Ag 85 could be identified only very weakly. From cases in the literature it is well-known that highly positive results for Ag 85 indicate active TB, however, weakly positive results indicate a silent initial infection with Mtb. Thus, apparently, also in ancient individuals, it might well be possible to differentiate between diseased persons and disease carriers using paleoproteomic techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Tuberculosis
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Tuberculosis
  • Michael Schultz · Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: In paleopathology, light microscopy, particularly the use of polarized transmission light, is highly valued for the establishment of reliable diagnoses. Recently, there has been a considerable widening of our experience in the diagnosis of pathological conditions at the micro-level using thin-ground sections prepared from archaeological bone. Thus, the question has arisen as to whether it might also be possible to diagnose tuberculous disease in archaeological bone using microscopy. As a rule, the reliability of a diagnosis established on the basis of thin-ground sections depends on the state of preservation of the selected sample (e.g., pseudopathology). However, sometimes, although the preservation is fairly good, a diagnosis cannot easily be established because the characteristic criteria (e.g., mosaic structure, in Paget's disease) are not clearly observable or seem to be ambiguous. In this case, we assumed that the pathophysiological nature of the morphological structures should be analyzed (e.g., the speed of growth of pathological newly built bone formations) which might help to differentiate between nonspecific (e.g., hematogenous osteomyelitis) and specific inflammatory bone diseases (e.g., tuberculous bone disease). To verify this assumption, samples were taken from recent bone collection materials with known disease diagnoses and from archaeological specimens which show lesions suspicious of bone tuberculosis (e.g., bone tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz · Michael Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: For several years, it has been possible to detect typical extracellular matrix proteins (ECMs), such as osteopontin, osteonectin, and osteocalcin, in archaeological bone. Additionally, it has proven possible to detect growth factors and hormones (e.g., TGF-β, BMP-2, gonatropine), bone matrix proteins of the immune system (e.g., IgG, IgA, interleukine), and biomarker for diseases, such as tumor markers (e.g., PSA, PSA/ACT) or typical molecules characteristic for nonspecific infectious disease (e.g., TNF-α, IFN-γ) and specific infectious diseases (e.g., from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ag 85), in dry (macerated) bone. Now, we are able to detect these ECMs in fossil bone as well. Thus, evolutionarily old molecules, such as BMP-2, albumin, and matrix-gla-proteins (MPG), can be detected in fossil bone of various specimens (e.g., Anancus arvernensis) and compared to each other and to recent specimens. Furthermore, the bone matrix protein patterns of childhood and adulthood (at the date of death) in the same individual can be compared, providing us with information on changes of living conditions during the individual’s lifetime. Finally, the future possibilities of the study of ECMs in fossil human species are briefly outlined. This contribution hopes to attract interest in newly available methods of biochemical and, in particular proteomic, research in paleoanthropology. These have potential to provide insights toward a better understanding of the evolution of mankind.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
  • M. Schultz · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: The methods and techniques of paleopathology are briefly described. Up to now, paleopathology has not really played a role in the field of paleoanthropology, although this relatively new science can contribute valuable facts to the reconstruction of the life of fossil humans and their antecessors. Examining the vestiges of pathological processes, the paleopathologist can reconstruct, within certain limits, the diseases early man suffered from (e.g., inflammatory and tumorous diseases) and even the hard living conditions, particularly the physical strain of everyday life. We might be able to gain substantial information about the musculoskeletal system, involved, for instance, in locomotion and work as well as some clues about possible social behavior and care (e.g., of an injured or disabled member of the social group). Not only the vestiges of pathological
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • M. Schultz · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: The methods and techniques of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are briefly described, and the advantages of polarization microscopy are discussed. Particularly, light microscopy is a useful tool to diagnose fossil bone at the micro-level. Selected samples of fossilized human bones (e.g., Australopithecus, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Paleolithic Homo sapiens) were examined using plain and polarized light. The histomorphological findings show that microscopic research adds much to what can be found by macroscopic examination or by X-ray techniques. In particular, emphasis is placed on morphological structures that give clues to the taxonomy and the functional anatomy of early hominids. Furthermore, morphological structures which originated during the lifetime of the individual (e.g., individual age at death, physical strain, diseases) are explicable. Future perspectives of microscopic analyses are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    Dataset: Molnar

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Pastoral nomadism, as a successful economic and social system drawing on mobile herding, long-distance trade, and cavalry warfare, affected all polities of the Eurasian continent. The role that arid Inner Asia, particularly the areas of northwestern China, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, played in the emergence of this phenomenon remains a fundamental and still challenging question in prehistoric archaeology of the Eurasian steppes. The cemetery of Liushiu (Xinjiang, China) reveals burial features, bronze bridle bits, weaponry, adornment, horse skulls, and sheep/goat bones, which, together with paleopathological changes in human skeletons, indicate the presence of mobile pastoralists and their flocks at summer pastures in the Kunlun Mountains, ∼2,850 m above sea level. Radiocarbon dates place the onset of the burial activity between 1108 and 893 B.C. (95% probability range) or most likely between 1017 and 926 B.C. (68%). These data from the Kunlun Mountains show a wider frontier within the diversity of mobile pastoral economies of Inner Asia and support the concept of multiregional transitions toward Iron Age complex pastoralism and mounted warfare.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: According to our current knowledge, tumors are the same age as mankind itself. The prevalence of tumorous diseases, however, was seemingly relatively low in the past and apparently increased dramatically in modern times. This theory is based on scattered case studies. However, the majority of these investigations were not carried out using modern diagnostic techniques. The scarcity of data concerning the antiquity of cancer demands new investigations in this field. Future paleopathological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable "paleo-oncology" to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer. In this study, we present data on the occurrence of malignant bone tumors in 12 anthropological series (3967 individuals) from Hungary dated to the 3rd -16th centuries AD. All skeletons were subjected to a careful macroscopic investigation, complemented by radiological examination and in special case scanning electron-microscopic and histological analyses, too. We identified 13 cases of malignant bone tumors. In most instances, multiple osteolytic lesions with slight osteoblastic reactions, in characteristic skeletal distributions, were strongly suggestive of metastatic carcinoma. However, in some cases multiple myeloma cannot be excluded. A mature male w i th pronounced osteoblastic reactions, particularly on the hip bones, seemed to be most compatible w i th the diagnosis metastatic prostate cancer. These observations indicate that carcinomas were present in human populations living on the territory of present-day Hungary over the last two millennia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Acta Biologica Szegediensis
  • M. Schultz · J. Gresky · A. Kozak · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz · N. Roumelis
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    ABSTRACT: In 2005, two Early Dynastic, relatively well-preserved skeletons were excavated in the ancient living area of Elephantine. Both individuals, a robust male and a gracile female, who probably belonged to the ethnic Egyptian and not to the Nubian group, died at the age of 22-24. The male had a body length of 168 cm whereas the female had a body length of 160 cm, which were both in accordance with the average size of Early Dynastic people of this geographic area. The main goal of this study was to establish, within limits, a kind of "biography" of these two ancient individuals. The young male suffered from an inflammatory process of the scalp, probably due to chronic affliction by head lice, which possibly secondarily caused an endocranial process. Additionally, for many years he endured a chronic inflammation of the frontal and maxillary sinuses. Furthermore, there are vestiges of inflammatory processes on the hard palate and the alveolar region, the latter probably due to dental calculus, which also provoked apical processes and intra vitam tooth loss. During his young life, he had suffered from pleurisy which already had healed before his death. Characteristic vestiges on the surfaces of the leg bones demonstrate that he had an inflammation of the deep veins which probably was provoked by parasites (possibly from drinking Nile water). Although he died young, he endured pronounced degenerative joint disease, particularly in the hip joint, which probably resulted from extraordinary physical strain which was also responsible for the degenerative alterations in the vertebral column. Here, additionally, vestiges of Scheuermann's disease as well as genetic changes in the lumbosacral region are observable. In contrast to the young male, the young female showed relatively few and less pronounced vestiges of diseases which, however, showed a similar scope. She also suffered from scalp infection, chronic inflammations of the nose cavities and the maxillary sinuses, and discrete vestiges of mild dental and alveolar processes. The morphology of the vestiges indicative of pleurisy suggests the possibility of a tuberculous process. Furthermore, she also endured inflammation of the deep veins which was probably also provoked by parasites. The status of degenerative joint disease is evidently not as pronounced as in the young male except that the shoulder joint and the thoracic vertebral column were severely affected. There is evidence from the occurrence of transverse linear enamel hypoplasias that this young female underwent nutritional or infectious stress during childhood. The nature and the scope of diseases diagnosed in the skeletons of these young individuals mirror a hard life full of privation and unpleasant living conditions possibly characteristic of the Early Dynastic population of Elephantine. Finally, the two individuals were investigated to provide information on the procedure of possible intentional mummification and the taphonomy of the burial.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a 2,700-year-old tumor can be reliably diagnosed using microscopic and proteomic techniques and whether such prostate carcinomas show the same morphological pattern at the micro-level as modern-day carcinomas, this case was investigated. A 40-50-year-old Scythian king who lived during the Iron Age in the steppe of Southern Siberia (Russia) suffered from macroscopically visible osteoblastic and osteoclastic lesions throughout his entire skeleton. Macro-morphological (macroscopy, endoscopy, radiology) and micro-morphological techniques (histology, scanning-electron microscopy) as well as proteomic techniques (1-D- and 2-D-electrophoresis, Western blot) were applied. The results of the morphological and biochemical investigation proved that this mature male suffered for many years from and probably died of a carcinoma of the prostate. The diagnosis mainly rests on the results of the microscopic examination of the lesions and the positive evidence of PSA, which is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. It is remarkable that, in this ancient case, the morphological pattern at the microlevel is the same as in recent cases. The loss of the spongy bone substance (red bone marrow) provoked chronic anemia during the final months of the life of this king. The proteomic techniques applied are new for the investigation of recent and ancient macerated bones. Sensitive and reliable biochemical markers (PSA) are an important precondition to detect such tumors in recent and ancient materials. Currently, this is the oldest known case of prostate cancer diagnosed reliably by morphological and biochemical techniques.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular paleopathology has become an emerging field that helps to characterize molecular markers of past disease. Especially highly sensitive genetic techniques such as PCR are an important means of unraveling changes in ancient DNA extracted from bone tissue, teeth and mummified soft tissue. In the present study, excavated bone material from the skeleton of a Scythian sovereign, morphologically and immunohistochemically suspicious of a metastatic prostate carcinoma, was analyzed by PCR for amplifiable human gene sequences. Short sequences of the human GADD153 DNA repair gene and p53 tumor suppressor gene were detectable which revealed the absence of mutations according to the data of automatic sequencing. Using bisulfite-treated DNA from the bone, methylation-specific PCR detected hypermethylated promoter sequences of the p14ARF tumor suppressor gene. In summary, these data show that it is possible: a) to amply short human DNA stretches from 2,500-year-old bone material, b) to detect tumorigenetically important genes within this DNA, c) to detect epigenetically modified DNA in ancient bone material. The finding of hypermethylated p14ARF sequences merits attention because this may indicate an intraosseal neoplastic process and may corroborate the hypothesis of prostate cancer.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2007 · Anticancer research
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    M. Schultz · U. Timme · T. H. Schmidt-Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: Infant and child skeletons (n = 369) from the pre-Columbian Grasshopper Pueblo site in east-central Arizona (US) dating from the 14th century AD were examined macroscopically and with low-power microscopy. They were studied as a representative example of a typical Mogollon community with respect to frequencies of deficiency and inflammatory diseases. First results revealed very poor living conditions, which are characteristic for this time period in the North American Southwest because of lack of food due to climatic and political changes. Thus, non-specific stress indicators were frequently observed. In the group of deficiency diseases, anaemia was found in more than 50% of individuals, and in the group of inflammatory diseases, meningeal irritations were diagnosed in more than 70%. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
  • M. Schultz · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz · W. Xinhua
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    ABSTRACT: In autumn 2006, the human skeletal remains from Grave 26 from the excavations at Liushui, a Bronze Age burial site on the southern Silk Road, were studied with macroscopic and opticat-microscopic techniques in the outpost of the Archaeological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Korla (Xinjiang). Six virtually complete skeletons were examined following the anthropological determination of age and sex, the body lengths were calculated from the lengths of the long bones. In this contribution a brief overview of the results of the macroscopic and optical-microscopic study (anthropology, paleopathology) on the skeletons from Grave 26 are presented and preliminary indications on the alterations of the skeletal remains caused by the enveloping soil (diagenesis) are given. The preservation of the skeletons from Grave 26 of Liushui may be considered as being unusually good. In Grave 26, the six almost complete skeletons of an older child (individual 26/1), three adult men (individuals 26/2, 26/3 and 26/5) and two women (individuals 26/4, 26/6) were found. Only one of the men (individual 26/2) reached a mature age, the other two died at an early mature age. Neither woman was old. One died as a juvenile (individual 26/4), the other at an early adult age (individual 26/6). The bone of a foetus (individual 26/6A) found near the early adult woman (individual 26/6) supports the idea that she may have been pregnant. There are many indications that horses were commonly rode in Bronze Age Liushui. For one young adult male (individual 26/5) we suspect that he may have practised archery intensively since his childhood. The lack of caries and the relatively low abrasion of the chewing surfaces of the teeth, as well as the fairly frequent formation of gingival infections, indicate that the people buried in Grave 26 were probably not farmers, but rather belonged to a population, who quite often consumed meat. Since in three out of six cases (individuals 26/3, 26/4, 26/5) the infrequent trait of a curvature of the nasal septum is present, there is a suspicion of a common kinship among the buried persons. Traces of pathological changes were found in a pattern typical for prehistoric populations and in the usual frequency. Vestiges of hostile interpersonal relationships in the form of wounds from blows or shots could be identified in two cases (individuals 26/2, 26/3). With respect to the medical care of the time, it is interesting to observe that a wound resulting from a shot in the face of the older man (individual 26/2) was possibly surgically treated.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Eurasia Antiqua
  • T. H. Schmidt-Schultz · M. Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: Ancient bones in a good preservation state, ascertained by microscopic techniques, conserve extracellular matrix proteins over thousands of years. With new techniques, intact extracellular matrix proteins from ancient bones and teeth are extracted and separated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins were identified in Western blots by special antibodies against different human extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules of bone. We have confirmed different types of ECM human bone molecules such as osteonectin, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase with specific antibodies in human bone samples from different age groups. Additionally, we selected bone samples from different cultural time periods, such as the Middle Ages, the Bronze Age and the Late Pre-Pottery Neolithic Phase (PPNB), and teeth from individuals from the Early Middle Ages and from the Late PPNB. The survival of intact extracellular matrix proteins in ancient bones and teeth dating from recent times to the Late PPNB, and reliable techniques to identify these proteins, present a great challenge to further research. A Match Set with PD-Quest 7.2 shows that only 16% of protein spots in the teeth are also found in the bone of the same individual. In combination with the results of macro- and microscopic investigation, biochemical techniques will help us in obtaining a better understanding of bone and teeth in health and disease. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Osteoarchaeology
  • Tyede H Schmidt-Schultz · Michael Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time we have extracted, solubilized and identified growth factors, such as insulin growth factor II (IGF-II), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), from archaeological compact human bone and tooth dentin dating from the late pre-ceramic pottery Neolithic (late PPNB) and the early Middle Ages. These factors are typical of special physiological or pathological situations in the metabolism of bone. The extracellular matrix proteins from bone and teeth of individuals from the late PPNB and early Middle Ages were separated by 2-D electrophoresis and more than 300 different protein spots were detected by silver staining. The matrix protein patterns of compact bone and tooth from the same individual (early Middle Ages) are very different and only 16% of the protein spots were detected in both compact bone and tooth dentin.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Biological Chemistry
  • Tyede H Schmidt-Schultz · Michael Schultz
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    ABSTRACT: In a good state of preservation, bone conserves the entire protein pattern of extracellular bone matrix proteins over thousands of years. The quality of the profiles of matrix proteins isolated from ancient bones (ranging from the pre-Pottery Neolithic Phase to Early Modern Times from different archaeological sites in different geographical areas), separated by electrophoresis, is as good as those from recent bones. Molecules arising from collagenous proteins (e.g., collagen type I), from the noncollagenous group (e.g., osteonectin), and from the immune system (e.g., immunoglobulin G) were identified in Western blots by specific antibodies. A comparative study of the immunoglobulin G content of the bones of five prehistoric children showed the lowest immunoglobulin G content in a child who suffered from chronic scurvy. Ancient bone proteins were also separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. This technique makes fractionation of the complex protein mixtures of extracellular bone matrix more reproducible. Bone retains a chemical memory of earlier metabolic stimuli in its configuration of collagenous and noncollagenous proteins. In combination with the results of the microscopic examination of ancient bone, it should be possible to obtain more reliable information on the history and the evolution of diseases, based on analysis of intact proteins.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · American Journal of Physical Anthropology
  • M. Schultz · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz

    No preview · Article · Jan 2004
  • J. Gresky · X.H. Wu · M. Wagner · T. Schmidt-Schultz · M. Schultz

    No preview · Article · · Eurasia Antiqua
  • M. Schultz · T.H. Schmidt-Schultz · X.H. Wu

    No preview · Article · · Eurasia Antiqua

Publication Stats

138 Citations
32.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2004-2007
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      • Department of Plant Biochemistry
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany