[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe chronic neutropenia (SCN) is defined as an absolute neutrophil (ANC) of less than 0.5 x 10(9)/L, lasting for months or years. Congenital, cyclic, and idiopathic neutropenia are principal categories of SCN. Since 1994, the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (SCNIR) has collected data to monitor the clinical course, treatments, and disease outcomes for SCN patients. This report summarizes data for 853 patients, almost all treated with daily or alternate-day recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or Filgrastim). G-CSF treatment increased the ANC overall from 0.34 x 10(9)/L +/- 0.018 pre-treatment to 3.70 x 10(9)/L +/- 0.18 during the first year of treatment. For most patients, the responses were durable with patients remaining on the same dose of G-CSF for many years. Long-term hematological observations showed stable mean leukocyte and neutrophil counts and gradually increasing hemoglobin levels. Thrombocytopenia developed in 4% of patients. As of January 1, 2000, myelodysplasia (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) has occurred in 35 of 387 patients with congenital neutropenia with a cumulative risk of 13% after 8 years of G-CSF treatment. This event occurred without a predictable relationship to the duration or dose of G-CSF treatment. No patients with cyclic or idiopathic neutropenia developed MDS or AML. Other important adverse events included hepatomegaly, osteoporosis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, and deaths in 4 of 14 cases requiring splenectomy. Growth and development and the outcome of pregnancy appeared to be unaffected by G-CSF treatment. These data indicate that congenital, cyclic, and idiopathic neutropenia can be effectively treated with long-term G-CSF. The risk of leukemia, osteoporosis, other potentially adverse events, and pregnancy outcome need to be further evaluated with continuing long-term observations.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · American Journal of Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (SCNIR) was established in 1994 following four phase I/II and one phase III clinical trial on the use of filgrastim (recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [r-metHuG-CSF]) as a treatment for severe chronic neutropenia (SCN). A primary purpose of the SCNIR is to monitor SCN patients treated with filgrastim for adverse events that might occur over time. As of December 31, 2000, 832 patients with SCN (384 congenital, 160 cyclic, 288 idiopathic) were enrolled. Clinical trial and Registry data show that filgrastim is an effective treatment for SCN; more than 90% of patients treated respond with normalization of blood neutrophil counts. The SCNIR has collected data on bone pain, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia, osteopenia/osteoporosis, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, growth and development, pregnancy and fertility, leukemic transformation, and mortality. Analysis of data from patients who received filgrastim for up to 11 years did not identify any adverse events associated with increased duration of treatment.
Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Seminars in Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has had a major impact on management of "severe chronic neutropenia," a collective term referring to congenital, idiopathic, or cyclic neutropenia. Almost all patients respond to G-CSF with increased neutrophils, reduced infections, and improved survival. Some responders with congenital neutropenia have developed myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloblastic leukemia (MDS/AML), which raises the question of the role of G-CSF in pathogenesis. The Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry (SCNIR), Seattle, WA, has data on 696 neutropenic patients, including 352 patients with congenital neutropenia, treated with G-CSF from 1987 to present. Treatment and patient demographic data were analyzed. The 352 congenital patients were observed for a mean of 6 years (range, 0.1-11 years) while being treated. Of these patients, 31 developed MDS/AML, for a crude rate of malignant transformation of nearly 9%. None of the 344 patients with idiopathic or cyclic neutropenia developed MDS/AML. Transformation was associated with acquired marrow cytogenetic clonal changes: 18 patients developed a partial or complete loss of chromosome 7, and 9 patients manifested abnormalities of chromosome 21 (usually trisomy 21). For each yearly treatment interval, the annual rate of MDS/AML development was less than 2%. No significant relationships between age at onset of MDS/AML and patient gender, G-CSF dose, or treatment duration were found (P >.15). In addition to the 31 patients who developed MDS/AML, the SCNIR also has data on 9 additional neutropenic patients whose bone marrow studies show cytogenetic clonal changes but the patients are without transformation to MDS/AML. Although our data does not support a cause-and-effect relationship between development of MDS/AML and G-CSF therapy or other patient demographics, we cannot exclude a direct contribution of G-CSF in the pathogenesis of MDS/AML. This issue is unclear because MDS/AML was not seen in cyclic or idiopathic neutropenia. Improved survival of congenital neutropenia patients receiving G-CSF therapy may allow time for the expression of the leukemic predisposition that characterizes the natural history of these disorders. However, other factors related to G-CSF may also be operative in the setting of congenital neutropenia. (Blood. 2000;96:429-436)