[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TACI is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and serves as a key regulator of B cell function. TACI
binds two ligands, APRIL and BAFF, with high affinity and contains two cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) in its extracellular region;
in contrast, BCMA and BR3, the other known high affinity receptors for APRIL and BAFF, respectively, contain only a single
or partial CRD. However, another form of TACI exists wherein the N-terminal CRD is removed by alternative splicing. We find
that this shorter form is capable of ligand-induced cell signaling and that the second CRD alone (TACI_d2) contains full affinity
for both ligands. Furthermore, we report the solution structure and alanine-scanning mutagenesis of TACI_d2 along with co-crystal
structures of APRIL·TACI_d2 and APRIL·BCMA complexes that together reveal the mechanism by which TACI engages high affinity
ligand binding through a single CRD, and we highlight sources of ligand-receptor specificity within the APRIL/BAFF system.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member whose physiological role remains unclear. BCMA has been implicated as a receptor for both a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and B cell-activating factor (BAFF), tumor necrosis factor ligands that bind to multiple tumor necrosis factor receptor and have been reported to play a role in autoimmune disease and cancer. The results presented herein provide a dual perspective analysis of BCMA binding to both APRIL and BAFF. First, we characterized the binding affinity of monomeric BCMA for its ligands; BAFF binding affinity (IC50 = 8 +/- 5 microm) is about 1000-fold reduced compared with the high affinity interaction of APRIL (IC50 = 11 +/- 3 nm). Second, shotgun alanine scanning of BCMA was used to map critical residues for either APRIL or BAFF binding. In addition to a previously described "DXL" motif (Gordon, N. C., Pan, B., Hymowitz, S. G., Yin, J., Kelley, R. F., Cochran, A. G., Yan, M., Dixit, V. M., Fairbrother, W. J., and Starovasnik, M. A. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 5977-5983), the alanine scanning results predicted four amino acid positions in BCMA (Tyr13, Ile22, Gln25, and Arg27) that could impart ligand specificity. Substitution of Tyr13 was tolerated for BAFF binding but not APRIL binding. Arg27 was required for high affinity binding to APRIL, whereas substitutions of this residue had minimal effect on affinity for BAFF. Further phage display experiments suggested the single mutations of I22K, Q25D, and R27Y as providing the greatest difference in APRIL versus BAFF binding affinity. Incorporation of the Q25D and R27Y substitutions into BCMA produced a dual specificity variant, since it has comparable binding affinity for both APRIL and BAFF, IC50 = 350 and 700 nm, respectively. Binding of the I22K mutant of monomeric BCMA to BAFF was undetectable (IC50 > 100 microm), but affinity for binding to APRIL was similar to wild-type BCMA. Based on these results, a BCMA-Fc fusion with the single I22K mutation was produced that binds APRIL, IC50 = 12 nm, and has no measurable affinity for BAFF. These results suggest that APRIL is the preferred ligand for BCMA and show that specificity can be further modified through amino acid substitutions.
Preview · Article · May 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry