[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a major side effect of several antineoplastic drugs. However, despite its clinical importance, there is no agreement as to the best way to assess the severity and changes in CIPN. We have previously demonstrated a correlation between the severity of CIPN, assessed using the Total Neuropathy Score (TNS) or its reduced versions, and several common toxicity scales. In this study, we investigated two series of patients (total number = 173) who were evaluated at baseline and during chemotherapy with the TNS (n= 122) or the TNSc (the TNS version based exclusively on the clinical evaluation of the patients, n= 51) and with the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) 2.0, with the aim of comparing the sensitivity to the changes in CIPN severity. In both series, the TNS and the TNSc had a significant correlation with the NCI-CTC in scoring the severity of CIPN, confirming the results of previous studies. Moreover, both the TNS and the TNSc showed a higher sensitivity to CIPN changes. We, therefore, propose the TNSc as a reliable method for assessing not only the severity but also the changes in CIPN.
No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is an immunomodulating procedure consisting of autologous reinfusion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after direct exposure to 8-methoxy-psoralen and UV-A. It has been described as a successful treatment for different T-cell-mediated diseases and preliminary results suggest that ECP might be effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but does not significantly alter the course of the progressive form of MS. In this study, we report the safety data and some preliminary efficacy evidence obtained using ECP in the treatment of five patients with refractory relapsing-remitting (RR) MS: in most cases ECP induced a reduction in the relapse rate and an EDSS stabilisation, with an apparent general MRI stabilisation. In conclusion, our results confirm ECP safety and tolerability and suggest that this treatment might be useful as a therapeutic alternative in the subgroup of RRMS patients not responsive to or not eligible for traditional immunomodulating or immunosuppressive treatments.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pixantrone is an immunesuppressor similar to mitoxantrone but with lower cardiotoxicity. We evaluated the effect of pixantrone on B cells and lymphomononuclear cells in the course of acute EAE. Pixantrone reduced the number of B cells and suppressed myelin basic protein (MBP) specific IgG production. In vitro, pixantrone induced apoptosis of rat B lymphocytes in a way similar to mitoxantrone. In addition, pixantrone inhibited antigen specific and mitogen induced lymphomononuclear cell proliferation, as well as IFN-gamma production, during EAE. These findings suggest a similar mechanism of action for pixantrone and mitoxantrone on the effector function of lymphomonocyte B and T cells.
No preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Journal of Neuroimmunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pixantrone is less cardiotoxic and is similarly effective to mitoxantrone (MTX) as an antineoplastic drug. In our study, pixantrone reduced the severity of acute and decreased the relapse rate of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats. A marked and long-lasting decrease in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD45RA+ blood cells and reduced anti-MBP titers were observed with both pixantrone and MTX. In vitro mitogen- and antigen-induced T-cell proliferation tests of human and rodents cells evidenced that pixantrone was effective at concentrations which can be effectively obtained after i.v. administration in humans. Cardiotoxicity was present only in MTX-treated rats. The effectiveness and the favorable safety profile makes pixantrone a most promising immunosuppressant agent for clinical use in multiple sclerosis (MS).
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Journal of Neuroimmunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the neurotoxicity and ototoxicity of combination cisplatin plus paclitaxel versus cisplatin plus cyclophosphamide using extensive clinical and instrumental evaluation.
Forty-six of 51 consecutive patients affected by-epithelial ovarian cancer seen in our institution between October 1994 and August 1995 entered the study. After randomization, they were assigned to receive cisplatin 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks associated with cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 (CC group, n = 22) or paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 over a 3-hour infusion (CP group, n = 24). Treatment was repeated six times in 43 patients and nine times in 25. Before treatment and after three, six, and nine courses of chemotherapy, patients underwent clinical and instrumental neurologic and otologic examinations.
Mild sensory impairment was evident even after only three courses of both treatments and signs and symptoms were more severe at the end of treatment. On clinical grounds only, it was possible to demonstrate after six and nine courses a difference between CC and CP treatment, due to the involvement in some CP patients of pain and thermal sensory modalities. However, the overall severity of the neuropathy was similar. Audiometric parameters demonstrated a more negative outcome after treatment in CC compared with CP patients. However, the different severity of the involvement was closely correlated to this initial difference in audiologic performance.
Up to nine courses of chemotherapy, the CC and CP schedules are similar in terms of severity of neurotoxicity and ototoxicity when patients are evaluated during and immediately after treatment. With the doses used in our study, these toxicities are not dose-limiting. Our results suggest that most of the toxic effects observed during the treatment were due to cisplatin.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Journal of Clinical Oncology