[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main cellular constituents of reactive stroma in primary and metastatic cancer. We analyzed phenotypical characteristics of CAFs from human colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) and their role in inflammation and cancer progression. CAFs displayed a vimentin(+), alpha-smooth-muscle actin(+), and Thy-1(+) phenotype similar to resident portal-located liver fibroblasts (LFs). We demonstrated that CLMs are inflammatory sites showing stromal expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine related to invasion and angiogenesis. In vitro analyses revealed a striking induction of IL-8 expression in CAFs and LFs by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The effect of TNF-alpha on CAFs is inhibited by the nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor parthenolide. Conditioned medium of CAFs and LFs similarly stimulated the migration of DLD-1, Colo-678, HuH7 carcinoma cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Pretreatment of CAFs with TNF-alpha increased the chemotaxis of Colo-678 colon carcinoma cells by conditioned medium of CAFs; however, blockage of IL-8 activity showed no inhibitory effect. In conclusion, these data raise the possibility that the majority of CAFs in CLM originate from resident LFs. TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of IL-8 via nuclear factor-kappaB in CAFs is an inflammatory pathway, potentially permissive for cancer invasion that may represent a novel therapeutic target.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · American Journal Of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data have expanded the concept that cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a mitogen for human CAFs isolated from hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (1 microM) abrogated the PDGF-induced DNA synthesis, and furthermore counteracted an inhibitory effect of PDGF on the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). High-dose imatinib mesylate (10 microM) decreased the viability of CAFs in vitro independent from co-stimulation with PDGF. Interestingly, imatinib mesylate (10 microM) strikingly induced the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, and mildly stimulated the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Our results suggest that imatinib mesylate, due to its anti-proliferative activity, may be effective in combination with other substances for the treatment of colorectal metastasis progression.