[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed the Block 98.2 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in addition to reporting on potential risk factors for ovarian cancer. FFQ data were then utilized to calculate the HEI score, and cup, ounce, gram, or caloric equivalents for the 12 different food groups comprising the index. In multivariate models, the OR for the highest tertile of the HEI score compared with the lowest (reflecting a better diet compared with a worse diet) was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.55-1.47). There was limited evidence for a statistically significant association between any of the 12 individual food components and ovarian cancer risk. Based on this study's results, neither individual food groups nor dietary quality showed potential for preventing ovarian cancer.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Cancer Causes and Control
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the relation of medical conditions related to obesity and medications used for these conditions with endometrial cancer. We also investigated the association of other medical conditions and medications with risk. This U.S. population-based case-control study included 469 endometrial cancer cases and 467 controls. Information on putative risk factors for endometrial cancer was collected through personal interviews. We asked women about their medical history and medications used for six months or longer and the number of years each medication was taken. Risk was strongly associated with increasing obesity (P for trend < 0.001). Among the conditions related to obesity, and after adjustment for age, body mass index, and other risk factors and conditions, uterine fibroids were independently related to an increased cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.2-2.5]. Although hypertension was not significantly related to endometrial cancer after adjustment for age and body mass index, the use of thiazide diuretics was independently associated with increased risk (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0). Anemia was associated with decreased risk (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was related to a decreased risk (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.97). To our knowledge, the observation about thiazide diuretics is novel and requires confirmation in other studies and populations.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the risk associated with variants in three genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1, in the population-based case-control study of Estrogen, Diet, Genetics, and Endometrial Cancer. This study was conducted in New Jersey in 2001-2006 with 417 cases and 402 controls. For CYP11A1, there was no association between the number of [TTTTA]( n ) repeats (D15S520) and risk. For CYP17A1, risk was somewhat lower among women with the C/C genotype at T-34C (rs743572) (adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.41-1.02). For CYP19A1, risk was lower among women homozygous for the 3-bp deletion (rs11575899) in exon 4 (adjusted OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.76), while the number of [TTTA]( n ) repeats was not significantly related to risk: the adjusted OR for n = 7/7 repeats versus n > 7/>7 repeats was 0.81 (95% CI 0.54-1.23). In stratified analyses, results for CYP19A1 were stronger among women with higher (> or =27.4) body mass index: for the homozygous deletion, OR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.15-0.62); for the n = 7/7 genotype, OR = 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.93). The interaction between the n = 7/7 genotype and BMI was statistically significant (p = 0.01). The insertion/deletion variant in CYP19A1 appears to be related to risk of endometrial cancer; risk associated with variants in this gene may vary according to BMI.
Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Cancer Causes and Control