L. K. Hutton

NASA, Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (18)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relative position and relative proper motion of the radio sources 3C 345 and NRAO 512 are estimated from four sets of VLBI observations spread out over the period from October 1971 to May 1974. The use of phase-connection techniques yields the separation, in 1950.0 coordinates, of the centers of brightness of the compact components of the two sources. An upper bound of 0.0005 arcsec/yr is placed on the relative proper motion (70% estimated confidence limits). Bounds that can be placed on the distances to the two sources are considered, prospects for improvement in the determination of relative position and proper motion of these sources are discussed, and other possible applications of the basic technique are described.
    Article · Nov 1979 · The Astronomical Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the Haystack-NRAO interferometer (baseline length of 20 million wavelengths at 3.8 cm) 37 sources were observed whose declinations were above 50 deg. Seven of these sources have compact cores with diameters smaller than 5 milliarcsec and with correlated flux densities greater than about 0.5 Jy; the remaining sources have no cores with flux densities above about 0.3 Jy, the sensitivity limit of the interferometer. Two of the sources with detected compact cores, 4C 67.05 and 3C 418, were also observed with longer-baseline interferometers; the diameter of the core of 4C 67.05 was estimated to be smaller than 1 milliarcsec and that of 3C 418 to be smaller than 0.4 milliarcsec. All diameter estimates were based on an assumed circular Gaussian distribution of radio brightness and refer to the contour with brightness density e to the -1/2 power times that of the center. Positions for the detected sources were also obtained from the interferometric data, the uncertainty in these coordinate estimates ranging from 0.04 to 0.6 arcsec. The compact core detected in 3C 390.3 was found to lie near the center of this extended (approximately 4 arcmin in diameter) double radio source and to be coincident to within 1 arcsec with an N galaxy previously identified with 3C 390.3.
    Article · Jul 1978 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    C. R. Menyuk · I. I. Shapiro · J. J. Wittels · [...] · L. K. Hutton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In October 1975, the radio telescopes of the Haystack, National Radio Astronomy, and Owens Valley Radio Observatories were used as an interferometer to monitor, at 8 GHz, the right and left circularly polarized radiation emitted by the quasars 3C 345 and NRAO 512. The data for each polarization are used separately to estimate several parameters describing a model of the fine structure of the radio brightness of 3C 345 and, subsequently, the angular separation between 3C 345 and NRAO 512. The results for the two polarizations are in approximate agreement, indicating that to the limit of resolution about 0.5 milliarcsec), the fourth Stokes parameter, V, is not significantly different from zero within the compact components of these radio sources. The corresponding quantitative limits on the degree of circular polarization are 0.08 + or - 0.07 for 3C 345 and 0.01 + or - 0.08 for NRAO 512.
    Full-text Article · Apr 1978 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    J. J. Wittels · I. I. Shapiro · W. D. Cotton · [...] · L. K. Hutton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results are reported for VLBI observations of 3C 345 at a wavelength of 3.8 cm with left circular polarization. Sixteen sets of correlated flux densities and three sets of closure phases were obtained from observations made over a three-year period with six independent interferometers formed from up to four antennas. The mathematical models employed to represent the radio brightness distribution of the source are described, and the data are analyzed on the basis of a two-component model. The results show that the compact source in 3C 345 consists of two components whose separation increased by about 0.3 milliarcsec over the observational period, that the smaller and weaker component is to the east and south of the larger and stronger one, and that the apparent expansion velocity would be about 2.5c for a redshift of 0.6, a Hubble constant of 60 km/sec per Mpc, and a deceleration parameter of unity. It is concluded that these findings are difficult to reconcile with the 'Christmas tree' model for the apparent change of separation with time over any given series of observations.
    Full-text Article · Dec 1976 · The Astronomical Journal
  • T. A. Clark · L. K. Hutton · G. E. Marandino · [...] · A. E. E. Rogers
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate positions of compact radio sources have been determined from very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations based on the bandwidth-synthesis technique. The coordinates for 18 extragalactic sources were obtained from sets of observations spread over the period from April 1972 to January 1975; the scatter among the independent determinations of the source coordinates from the separate sets of observations is about 0.05 arcsec, except for the declinations of near-equatorial sources, where the scatter is about 0.15 arcsec. Comparison of these positions with those determined with the Cambridge 5-km radio interferometer shows the rms scatter about the mean difference to be about 0.04 arcsec in each coordinate (no sources of low declination were in common). A similar comparison of the present results with those obtained by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from separate VLBI observations yields a slightly larger rms scatter, after exlusion of the declinations of the near-equatorial sources. A position is also obtained for the galactic object Beta Persei (Algol), which agrees well with the position given in the FK 4 catalogue.
    Article · Sep 1976 · The Astronomical Journal
  • J. J. Wittels · W. D. Cotton · Counselman · [...] · L. K. Hutton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compact extragalactic radio source 3C 345 was observed by very-long-baseline interferometry (wavelength about 3.8 cm) at 12 epochs distributed over the nearly four-year period from February 1971 to October 1974. For one of these epochs, the multibaseline data were sufficient to allow the brightness distribution to be estimated in a model-independent manner; the resultant distribution was clearly dominated by two components. The remaining sets of data were also represented adequately by two-component models. The angular separation of the two components increased during this period from about 1.00 to 1.30 milliarcsec, corresponding to an apparent average speed of expansion of approximately 2.5 c at a fixed position angle of 105 (plus or minus 5) deg. These results, coupled with the fact that contraction has never been observed, seem difficult to reconcile with the so-called Christmas-tree model of the 'superrelativistic' expansion of extragalactic radio sources.
    Article · Jul 1976 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • T. A. Clark · L. K. Hutton · C. Ma · [...] · A. R. Whitney
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For 8 hours during a strong radio flare on Jan. 15, 16, 1975, the close binary system Beta Persei (Algol) was observed with a three-station VLBI array operating at 7850 MHz. The size of the radio source was estimated to have been about 1.7 milliarcsec (0.05 AU), based on a model of a uniformly bright disk. The corresponding brightness temperature was nearly 10 billion K, indicating that the emission was probably nonthermal. There was no evidence for expansion of the source; the upper limit on the rate of any expansion was 100 km/s. The position of the Algol radio source with respect to an extragalactic reference frame was also determined from these observations with an uncertainty of about 0.1 arcsec in each coordinate.
    Article · Jul 1976 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Article · Feb 1976
  • Source
    Full-text Article · Feb 1976
  • T. A. Clark · W. C. Erickson · L. K. Hutton · [...] · A. B. Youmans
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observations made during a series of meter-wavelength very-long-baseline (VLBI) experiments conducted during 1971-1973 are reported. A wide variety of objects was observed, including many extragalactic sources known to have compact components, several strong pulsars (especially the Crab nebula pulsar), and a selection of supernova remnants. The experiments are discussed in detail, and tests made to check the consistency of the results are described. The measured correlated flux densities are presented for each source as a function of interferometer baseline and observing frequency. An assessment is made of the measurement errors and of the possibility of confusion within the interferometer beam. The results show that all sources except the pulsars, which are known to have intrinsically small sizes, are resolved on the longest baseline. We also conclude that no supernova remnants except the Crab nebula and Cassiopeia A gave evidence of compact components.
    Article · Dec 1975 · The Astronomical Journal
  • L. K. Hutton · T. A. Clark · I. I. Shapiro · [...] · O. E. H. Rydbeck
    Article · May 1975
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferometric observations taken at 7.8 GHz (gamma approximately = 3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennae of 25 extragalactic radio sources between April, 1972 and May, 1973 are reported. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structure from very simple to complex. The total flux and the correlated flux of some of the sources underwent large changes in a few weeks, while the structure and total power of others remained constant during the entire period of observation. Some aspects of the data processing and a discussion of errors are presented. Numerous figures are provided and explained. The individual radio sources are described in detail.
    Article · Mar 1975 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Article · Jan 1975
  • L. K. Hutton · T. A. Clark · W. C. Erickson · [...] · A. B. Youmans
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very-long-baseline interferometric observations of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, at 74 MHz with a 12,000-wavelength baseline and at 111 MHz with a 18,500-wavelength baseline, are reported. The fringe amplitudes are strongly varying on a time scale of about 15 to 30 minutes, which is attributed to much the same complex structure as that observed at higher frequencies, plus one other compact source. Due to the poor (u, nu)-plane coverage, the location of the extra source can not be isolated unambiguously, but possibilities are suggested. The source must lie outside the supernova remnant shell, possibly associated with a concentration of emission north of the shell, or lying outside the gap in the northeastern side of the shell. The flux and spectral index deduced for the compact source depend on the assumed size, with a range of 100 Jy and 500 Jy at 74 MHz. If the source is associated with the supernova explosion, it must have been traveling at least 5000 km/sec.
    Article · Dec 1974 · The Astronomical Journal
  • A. E. E. Rogers · H. F. Hinteregger · A. R. Whitney · [...] · L. K. Hutton
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The derived 'closure' phase relation for a three-element interferometer is used in a presented analysis of data obtained from observations at 7.8 GHz of the radio sources 3C 273B and 3C 84 by antennas in Massachusetts, California, Alaska, and Sweden (the first two antennas were used in combination with each of the last two separately to form two three-element interferometers). The brightness distribution is found for each source by expansion of both the fringe amplitude and the fringe phase in separate Fourier series.
    Article · Nov 1974 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • L. K. Hutton · T. A. Clark · W. M. Cronyn
    Article · Dec 1972
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: THE sudden increase in radio flux observed1 from the direction of Cygnus X-3 on September 22–23, 1972, occurred just as we began a four-antenna very-long-baseline interferometry experiment that involved a pair of radio telescopes in Green Bank, West Virginia, and another pair in Massachusetts (Table 1). We were able to take advantage of this opportunity to observe Cygnus X-3 interferometrically on September 24 and report here the negative results of these observations.
    Article · Dec 1972 · Nature
  • H. F. Hinteregger · G. W. Catuna · C. C. Counselman III · [...] · L. K. Hutton
    Article · Jan 1972 · Nature

Publication Stats

337 Citations


  • 1979
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1975
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1974
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States