[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal regimen for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in solid organ transplant recipients remains to be defined, particularly for patients with abnormal or changing renal function.
A prospective trial was conducted in patients receiving i.v. ganciclovir using a standardized dosing nomogram that corrects for renal function. Steady state peak (P) and trough (T) serum levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and correlated with therapeutic outcomes and toxicities attributable to ganciclovir.
Over the study period, 44 individuals received ganciclovir prophylaxis (5 mg(kg/day) and 25 patients were treated (5 mg/kd q12 hr) for symptomatic CMV disease. Ganciclovir levels (microg/ml+/-SD) achieved in prophylaxis were P: 7.98+/-3.34, T: 3.03+/-2.63; and in treatment were P: 9.00+/-3.72, T: 2.65+/-1.82. Despite corrections for renal dysfunction, undialyzed patients with serum creatinine >3.0 mg/dl had trough levels in excess of the population mean (T: range 3-8 microg/ml). Failure of prophylaxis (disease) or therapy (relapse) occurred in 14 patients; 8 of these were at risk for primary infection (donor CMV seropositive, recipient seronegative, P<0.01). Patients at greatest risk for relapse after treatment of CMV disease were liver transplant recipients, patients with ganciclovir-resistant viral isolates, and renal patients with six antigen MHC donor-recipient mismatches.
This trial demonstrates the efficacy of a nomogram for ganciclovir dosing during renal dysfunction; reduced doses can be used for prophylaxis for undialyzed patients with renal dysfunction (1.25 mg/kg/day for Cr > or =3.0, 1.25 mg/kg QOD for Cr > or =5.0). Some groups of transplant recipients may require more intensive anti-CMV regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine can increase serum levels of clozapine and norclozapine, but effects of other SSRIs are unknown. Thus, the authors evaluated interactions of clozapine with fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline.
Serum clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were assayed in 80 psychiatric patients, matched for age and clozapine dose, given clozapine (mean dose = 279 mg/day) alone or with fluoxetine (mean dose = 39.3 mg/day), paroxetine (mean = 31.2 mg/day), or sertraline (mean = 92.5 mg/ day). Each patient's dose of clozapine was stable for at least a month before serum sampling.
Concentrations of clozapine plus norclozapine averaged 43% higher, and the risk of levels higher than 1000 ng/ml was 10-fold greater (25%), in the patients taking SSRIs, with minor differences between patients taking the individual SSRIs.
SSRIs can increase circulating concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine, sometimes to potentially toxic levels.
No preview · Article · Jul 1996 · American Journal of Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clozapine (CLZ) and metabolites norclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide were assayed with a new, sensitive (2 pmol), and selective method in 68 serum samples from 44 psychotic subjects, 20 to 54 years old, ill 16 years, and treated with CLZ for 2.2 years (currently at 294 mg, 3.4 mg/kg daily). CLZ levels averaged 239 ng/ml (0.73 microM; 92 ng/ml per mg/kg dose) or 48% of total analytes (norclozapine = 41% [91% of CLZ] and clozapine-N-oxide = 11%); metabolite and CLZ levels were highly correlated (rs = 0.9), and CLZ levels varied with daily dose (rs = 0.7). Sampling twice yielded similar within-subject analyte levels (r = 0.8 to 0.9; difference = 24% to 33%). Range and variance narrowed when levels were expressed per weight-corrected dose (ng/ml per mg/kg). Levels per dose were 40% higher in nonsmoking women than men, despite a 60% lower milligram per kilogram dose in women, and did not vary by diagnosis or age in this limited sample. Fluoxetine increased serum CLZ analytes by 60%; valproate had less effect. Patients rated treatment very positively; observer-assessed benefits typically were more moderate. Common late side effects were sialorrhea (80%), excess sedation (58%), obesity (55% > 200 lb), mild tachycardia (51%), constipation (32%), and enuresis (27%); there were no seizures or leukopenia. There was little evident relationship of drug dose or serum level to current clinical measures or side effect risks.
No preview · Article · May 1994 · Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of clozapine, norclozapine, and clozapine-N-oxide were assayed in psychotic patients treated with clozapine alone (N = 17), clozapine with fluoxetine added (N = 6), or clozapine with valproic acid added (N = 11). Subjects were matched for age and other treatments, and concentrations were corrected for daily dose of clozapine (milligrams per kilogram of body weight). With valproic acid, there was a minor increase in total clozapine metabolites, which was even less with dose correction. Fluoxetine increased all clozapine analytes, in some cases to twice the levels in the subjects given only clozapine.
No preview · Article · Feb 1994 · American Journal of Psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clozapine (CLZ) and its metabolites norclozapine (NOR) and clozapine-N-oxide (NOX) were assayed in rat serum and brain tissue after intraperitoneal injection of CLZ. Clozapine levels rose with dose, averaging 28 ng/ml (87 nmol/L) serum per milligram/kilogram dose. Brain- and serum-CLZ levels correlated closely, averaging 24-fold higher in brain. Norclozapine and NOX averaged approximately 58% and 13% of CLZ in serum, respectively, whereas in brain, NOR was detected only at doses greater than or equal to 10 mg/kg (approximately 5.6% of CLZ) and NOX was undetectable. Levels peaked within 30 minutes, and elimination of CLZ from brain and CLZ or NOR from blood was very rapid (half-life = 1.5 to 1.6 hours). A week of daily dosing with CLZ led to no accumulation of drug in brain; a week of fluoxetine pretreatment increased analyte concentrations (serum, 86%; brain, 61%), but valproate had little effect.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1993 · Neuropsychopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new assay to measure the serum concentrations of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine and two major metabolites, norclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide. The analytes and an internal standard (triprolidine) were extracted from alkalinized samples into ethyl acetate and back-extracted into 0.1 mol/L HCl. The acid extracts were chromatographed on a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic column with photodiode array detection (210-340 nm). With the 254-nm signal, between-run imprecision (CV) was < 2% for clozapine and norclozapine at 400 micrograms/L, and 4.1% for clozapine-N-oxide at 100 micrograms/L. Absolute recovery exceeded 65%, and the detection limit was approximately 3-4 micrograms/L. In 25 patients at steady state at a mean daily clozapine dosage of 269 mg (3.09 mg/kg), clozapine averaged 231 +/- 144 micrograms/L (mean +/- SD); norclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide concentrations averaged 84% and 23% that of clozapine. Analyte concentrations were significantly correlated with daily dose. The method's ability to quantify clozapine and two major metabolites simultaneously with precision and sensitivity makes it useful in pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic monitoring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the applicability of liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection as a serum drug screening technique in an emergency toxicology setting. Basic compounds are extracted from alkalinized serum with hexane and chromatographed on a cyanopropyl reversed-phase column. The photodiode array detector records the ultraviolet spectrum of each eluting peak for identification and quantification. More than 30 drugs/metabolites including antidepressants, antihistamines, phenothiazines, and analgesics are detected at their therapeutic concentrations or less. Quantitative run-to-run precision (CV) for antidepressant drugs at low therapeutic concentrations is less than 6%. We evaluated the potential for interference of greater than 140 compounds of clinical interest. In a split-sample study, 151 of 154 positive drug findings by the method were confirmed by alternative techniques (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with either normal-phase or reversed-phase columns). In the three unconfirmed findings, this method detected drugs at concentrations below the limit of identification of the comparison method. Also, 275 samples judged negative by this procedure were negative by a different liquid-chromatographic method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a reversed-phase chromatographic procedure for detecting benzodiazepines and other drugs in serum. A liquid-liquid extraction step with hexane/ethyl acetate isolates the drugs from serum; absolute recoveries are generally greater than 85%. Reconstituted extracts are chromatographed on a 4-microns (particle size) C18 column; 14 drugs and an internal standard (flunitrazepam) are separated in 8 min. Peak detection, purity checking, and identification are performed with a computerized photodiode-array detector. Run-to-run imprecision (CV) for many benzodiazepines is less than 3%. In a study of 126 specimens from Emergency Department patients, the procedure showed excellent agreement with a gas-chromatographic method involving either mass-spectrometric or flame-ionization detection. This single procedure provides rapid and accurate detection, quantification, and confirmation of benzodiazepines in serum.