[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of our study was to compare the detection and distinguishability of microcalcifications on mammograms obtained with a digital direct flat-panel detector versus an analog system using an anthropomorphic breast phantom.
Studies were performed with a digital mammography system (Selenia) and an analog mammography system (Mammomat 3). Sixty-five transparent films were used as test specimens. Randomly distributed round and heterogeneous silicate particles (diameter, 100-1,400 microm) and an anthropomorphic scatter body were applied to the films. All radiographs were taken at identical settings and exposures. Six radiologists rated the films and monitor-displayed images independently of each other in random order on a standardized electronic questionnaire.
Interpretations based on monitor reading produced superior results over those based on digital image reading and analog film reading. In 41.1% (95% CI, 38.7-43.5%) of all the monitor readings, 20.2% (18.2-22.2%) of all digital images, and 19.6% (17.6-21.6%) of all analog films, the number of detectable microcalcifications agreed with the gold standard method. The diameter of visible microcalcifications was interpreted correctly in 35.6% (33.2-38.0%) of monitor readings, 19.0% (17.1-21.0%) of digital images, and 21.0% (18.9-23.0%) of analog films; and microcalcification shape was interpreted correctly in 53.8% (51.4-56.3%) of monitor readings, 28.2% (26.0-30.4%) of digital images, and 28.3% (26.0-30.5%) of analog films. Microcalcification number and size were underestimated more frequently than overestimated. Regardless of display medium, accuracy increased proportionately with the diameter of the simulated microcalcifications for all evaluation variables.
Digital flat-panel mammography is superior to the analog screen-film method for the detection and morphologic characterization of microcalcifications larger than 200 microm in diameter when the display medium is a monitor.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · American Journal of Roentgenology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrasts is a common method for studying sensory or cognitive brain functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the intravenous anaesthetic propofol on auditory-induced brain activation using BOLD contrast fMRI.
In eight neurosurgical patients, musical stimuli were presented binaurally in a block design. Imaging was performed under five conditions: no propofol (or wakefulness) and propofol plasma target concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 microg ml(-1).
During wakefulness we found activations in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) corresponding to the primary and secondary auditory cortex as well as in regions of higher functions of auditory information processing. The BOLD response decreased with increasing concentrations of propofol but remained partially preserved in areas of basic auditory processing in the STG during propofol 2.0 microg ml(-1).
Our results suggest a dose-dependent impairment of central processing of auditory information after propofol administration. These results are consistent with electrophysiological findings measuring neuronal activity directly, thus suggesting a dose-dependent impairment of central processing of auditory information after propofol administration. However, propofol did not totally blunt primary cortical responses to acoustic stimulation, indicating that patients may process auditory information under general anaesthesia.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article deals with technical aspects of intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for monitoring the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Under motor activation, therapeutic high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus was accompanied by an activation decrease in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and the ipsilateral cerebellum. Furthermore, an activation increase in the contralateral basal ganglia and insula region were detected. These findings demonstrate that fMRI constitutes a promising clinical application for investigating brain activity changes induced by DBS.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · European Radiology