[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the genetic diversity and patterns of the co-circulating genotypes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and their possible relationships with the severity of RSV infection, we studied all of the RSV-positive nasopharyngeal samples collected from children during five consecutive winters (2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014). The RSVs were detected using the respiratory virus panel fast assay and single-tube RT-PCR, their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Of the 165 positive samples, 131 (79.4%) carried RSV-A and 34 (20.6%) RSV-B; both groups co-circulated in all of the study periods, with RSV-A predominating in all the seasons except for winter 2010-2011, which had a predominance of RSV-B. Phylogenetic analysis of the RSV-A sequences identified genotypes NA1 and ON1, the second replacing the first during the last two years of the study period. The RSV-B belonged to genotypes BA9 and BA10. BA9 was detected in all the years of the study whereas BA only desultorily. Comparison of the subjects infected by RSV-A and RSV-B types did not reveal any significant differences, but the children infected by genotype A/NA1 more frequently had lower respiratory tract infections (p<0.0001) and required hospitalisation (p = 0.007) more often than those infected by genotype A/ON1. These findings show that RSV has complex patterns of circulation characterised by the periodical replacement of the predominant genotypes, and indicate that the circulation and pathogenic role of the different RSV strains should be investigated as each may have a different impact on the host. A knowledge of the correlations between types, genotypes and disease severity may also be important in order to be able to include the more virulent strains in future vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few prospective evaluations of point-of-care ultrasonography (US) for the diagnosis of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In particular, there are very few data concerning the efficiency of US in comparison with that of chest radiography (CR) in defining different kinds of lung alterations in the various pulmonary sections. The aim of this study was to bridge this gap in order to increase our knowledge of the performance of US in diagnosing CAP in childhood.
A total of 103 children (56 males, 54.4%; mean age +/- standard deviation 5.6 +/- 4.6 years) admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of suspected CAP were prospectively enrolled and underwent CR (evaluated by an independent expert radiologist) and lung US (performed by a resident in paediatrics with limited experience in US). The performance of US in diagnosing CAP (i.e. its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) was compared with that of CR.
A total of 48 patients had radiographically confirmed CAP. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of US in comparison with CR were respectively 97.9%, 94.5%, 94.0% and 98.1%. US identified a significantly higher number of cases of pleural effusion, but the concordance of the two methods in identifying the type of CAP was poor.
US can be considered a useful means of diagnosing CAP in children admitted to an Emergency Department with a lower respiratory tract infection, although its usefulness in identifying the type of lung involvement requires further evaluation.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Italian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of neurological complications due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is relatively uncommon, particularly in the case of immunocompetent patients. Only a few cases have been described in the literature, most of which involved adult or elderly patients.Clinical presentation: Two days after his pediatrician had diagnosed herpes zoster and prescribed oral acyclovir 400 mg three times a day, a 14-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of mild fever, severe headache, slowness, drowsiness and vomiting. A cerebrospinal fluid examination was performed and showed an increased protein concentration (95 mg/dL), normal glucose level (48 mg/dL; blood glucose level, 76 mg/dL) and lymphocytic pleocytosis (1,400 lymphocytes/muL), and VZV DNA was detected by means of polymerase chain reaction (1,250 copies/mL). The results of immunological screening for HIV, lymphocyte subpopulation counts, serum immunoglobulin and complement (C3 and C4) levels, vaccine responsiveness and lymphocytes stimulation tests were unremarkable. Acyclovir was administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg three times a day and continued for 10 days. The therapy was highly effective and the patient's clinical condition rapidly improved: fever disappeared after two days, and all of the signs and symptoms of neurological involvement after four days. The skin lesions resolved in about one week, and no pain or dysesthesia was ever reported. Given the favourable evolution of the illness, the child was discharged without further therapy after the 10-day treatment. The findings of a magnetic resonance examination immediately after the discontinuation of the antiviral therapy were normal, and a control examination carried out about four weeks later did not find any sign or symptom of disease.
VZV reactivation can also lead to various neurological complications in immunocompetent children. Prompt therapy with acyclovir and the integrity of the immune system are important in conditioning outcome, but other currently unknown factors probably also play a role.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Italian Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of effective antibacterial agents and vaccines, pneumococcal meningitis and sepsis are still associated with high mortality rates and a high risk of neurological sequelae. We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) who developed bacterial meningitis complicated by subdural empyema and deafness caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 7F. The 7F strain is not contained in PCV7 (the only vaccine on the market at the time of the onset of meningitis) but is included in the new pediatric 13-valent PCV, which may therefore prevent cases such as this in the future.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the use of an algorithm based on a procalcitonin (PCT) cut-off value as a means of guiding antibiotic therapy, 319 hospitalised children with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were randomised 1:1 to be treated on the basis of the algorithm or in accordance with standard guidelines. The children in the PCT group did not receive antibiotics if their PCT level upon admission was <0.25 ng/mL, and those receiving antibiotics from the time of admission were treated until their PCT level was ≥ 0.25 ng/mL. The final analysis was based on 155 patients in the PCT group and 155 in the control group. In comparison with the controls, the PCT group received significantly fewer antibiotic prescriptions (85.8% vs 100%; p < 0.05), were exposed to antibiotics for a shorter time (5.37 vs 10.96 days; p < 0.05), and experienced fewer antibiotic-related adverse events (3.9% vs 25.2%; p < 0.05), regardless of CAP severity. There was no significant between-group difference in recurrence of respiratory symptoms and new antibiotic prescription in the month following enrollment. The results of this first prospective study using a PCT cut-off value to guide antibiotic therapy for pediatric CAP showed that this approach can significantly reduce antibiotic use and antibiotic-related adverse events in children with uncomplicated disease. However, because the study included mainly children with mild to moderate CAP and the risk of the use of the algorithm-based approach was not validated in a relevant number of severe cases, further studies are needed before it can be used in routine clinical practice.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Respiratory medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the immunogenicity and the effect of a virosomal influenza vaccine on viral replication and T-cell activation in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 29 children infected with HIV-1 vertically (19 primed with a previous influenza vaccination and 10 who were not been immunized against influenza) were immunized with an intramuscular virosome-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. According to the European Agency for Evaluation of Medical Products (EMEA) criteria, the immunogenicity of the vaccine was adequate against all three influenza strains (A H1N1, A H3N2, and B) in the primed children, and against A H1N1 and A H3N2 in the unprimed children. After in vitro stimulation with vaccine antigens, the IFN-gamma levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures increased significantly from a baseline level of 103.0 +/- 229.8 pg/ml to a 30-day level of 390.7 +/- 606.3 pg/ml (P < 0.05), with concentrations significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the primed children than in the unprimed children. No increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA or HIV-1 proviral DNA was observed in either subgroup, and the immunophenotype analyses demonstrated that the CD4+ cell counts and percentages, the CD4/CD8 ratio and activated lymphocytes remained stable in either group from baseline to 1 month after each vaccine dose. This study showed that the virosomal influenza vaccine does seem to be immunogenic in the majority of HIV-infected children receiving HAART and does not induce viral replication or T-cell activation. Given the possible influenza-related complications in children infected with HIV, these results support the use of this influenza vaccine in such patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Journal of Medical Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels in HIV-1 perinatally infected children. Methods: Data from 1250 children recorded by the Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children from 1985 to 2002 were analysed. Since Ig levels physiologically vary with age, differences at different age periods were evaluated as differences in z-scores calculated using means and standard deviations of normal population for each age period. Combined antiretroviral therapy has become widespread in Italy since 1996, thus differences in Ig z-scores between the periods 1985-1995 and 1996-2002 were analysed. Data according to type of therapeutic regimen were also analysed. Results: Between the two periods 1985-1995 and 1996-2002, significant (P < 0.0001) decreases in IgG (6.29 +/- 4.72 versus 4.44 +/- 4.33), IgM (9.25 +/- 13.32 versus 5.61 +/- 7.93), and IgA (10.25 +/- 15.68 versus 6.48 +/- 11.56) z-scores, together with a parallel significant (P < 0.0001) increase in CD4 T-lymphocyte percentages, were found. These decreases were confirmed regardless of whether the children were receiving intravenous Ig or not. Ig z-scores were significantly higher in children receiving mono-therapy than in those receiving double-combined therapy (IgG, P < 0.0001; IgM, P = 0.003; IgA, P = 0.031) and in the latter children than in those receiving three or more drugs (P < 0.0001 for all z-scores). Ig z-scores correlated inversely with CD4 T lymphocyte percentages and, directly, with viral loads. Conclusions: Our data show that in HIV-1 infected children combined antiretroviral therapy leads to reduction of hyperimmunoglobulinemia which parallels restoration of CD4 T-lymphocyte percentage and viral load decrease, which it turn probably reflects improved B-lymphocyte functions. (C) 2004 Lippincott Williams Wilkins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cardiovascular involvement was evaluated in 38 vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children followed up for 5 years. This study demonstrates for the first time in a cohort of children the resolution of previous dilated cardiomyopathy after the start of HAART and the absence of cardiovascular events related to metabolic abnormalities during the period of its administration.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes the clinical, immunologic, and virological characteristics of 30 vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children older than 8 years of age (long-survivors) before the introduction of protease inhibitors therapy. All of them were followed from birth. At the age of 8 years, 7 children presented no HIV-1-associated signs or only mild ones and only 5 had severe clinical manifestations (acquired immune deficiency virus [AIDS]). The remaining 18 children presented moderate signs with some immunodeficiency. The follow-up from 8 years of age (3.5 years on the average) showed that 6 children remained asymptomatic and were therefore defined as long-survivors nonprogressors (average, 13 years) and only 4 children developed AIDS. Progressive encephalopathy was the most striking clinical manifestation at follow-up and occurred in 6 children (always after immunodeficiency) with a polymorphic picture combining eye movement alterations, pyramidal signs and symptoms and mental deterioration. The majority of our long-survivors carried a virus with nonsyncytia-inducing phenotype, thus confirming its association with long survival. A switch to syncytia-inducing phenotype was observed only in 2 cases during the follow-up, but their clinical status did not change at follow-up.
No preview · Article · Mar 2001 · AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To test the a priori hypothesis that longer duration of ruptured membranes is associated with increased risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Design: The relationship between duration of ruptured membranes and vertical transmission of HIV was evaluated in an individual patient data meta-analysis. Methods: Eligible studies were prospective cohort studies including at least 100 mother-child pairs, from regions where HIV-infected women are counselled not to breastfeed. Analyses were restricted to vaginal deliveries and non-elective Cesarean sections; elective Cesarean section deliveries (those performed before onset of labour and before rupture of membranes) were excluded. Results: The primary analysis included 4721 deliveries with duration of ruptured membranes less than or equal to 24 h. After adjusting for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission using logistic regression analysis to assess the strength of the relationship, the risk of vertical HIV transmission increased approximately 2% with an increase of 1 h in the duration of ruptured membranes [adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04; for each 1 h increment]. There were no significant interactions of duration of ruptured membranes with study cohort or with any of the covariates, except maternal AIDS. Among women diagnosed with AIDS, the estimated probability of transmission increased from 8% to 31% with duration of ruptured membranes of 2 h and 24 h respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusions: These results support the importance of duration of ruptured membranes as a risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV and suggest that a diagnosis of AIDS in the mother at the time of delivery may potentiate the effect of duration of ruptured membranes. (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the neurologic complications of HIV- 1 infection during the first two years of life have been defined, the neurologic features in older children are not so well described. The present report is focused on the age-dependent neurologic presentation of HIV-1 infection. Sixty-two vertically HIV-1 infected children underwent detailed serial evaluations: neurologic assessment, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging studies, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Neurologic involvement was found in 30 patients (48.3%). This population was divided into two groups, exhibiting progressive (83.3%) or nonprogressive (16.6%) neurologic signs and symptoms. In the first group of patients, progressive encephalopathy was distinguished from spastic paraparesis, possibly due to spinal cord involvement. The second group, represented by long-term survivors, requires clinical monitoring due to the possible prognostic value of acquired but presently nonprogressive signs of brain involvement. In contrast with the stereotyped features of the early form of progressive encephalopathy, the late form showed a polymorphic picture, with age-dependent neurologic manifestations. Multifocal white matter alterations and cerebral calcifications (sometimes with delayed onset and progression) were the prominent imaging findings. A correlation between cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA levels, suggestive of viral replication within the central nervous system, and progressive neurological disease were also found.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present report concerns a vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected 7-year-old child, in whom a neurodegenerative disease occurred after an acute neurologic disorder that was in all likelihood symptomatic of HIV-1 encephalitis. At the steady state the neurologic disease fulfilled the accepted criteria of HIV-related progressive encephalopathy of childhood and was characterized by involvement of multiple neural systems and subcortical dementia. The neurologic disease displayed, however, atypical presentation and course, and its acute focal onset led the authors to postulate an acute and direct involvement of the brain in HIV-1 infection. The correlation between the cliniconeuroradiologic data and levels of HIV-RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and the response to different antiretroviral treatments are also discussed.
No preview · Article · May 1999 · Pediatric Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. Methods North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. Results The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19), Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine. (N Engl J Med 1999;340:977-87.) (C)1999, Massachusetts Medical Society.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of seroconversion for antibody to Chlamydia pneumoniae was analysed in blood samples of 26 vertically HIV-1 infected children and 14 seroreverter children (HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers) during a 3-year study period. Seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae was found in 13 of 26 HIV-1 infected children and in 1 of 14 in the seroreverter group (P=0.013). A lower mean CD4+ cell count and p24 antigen positivity at enrolment were significantly associated with seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Signs and symptoms of acute respiratory infection were recorded in the 30 to 40 days preceding collection of the blood samples showing seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae in 8 of 13 HIV-1 infected children and in the single seroreverter. This study confirms the potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in HIV-1 infected subjects.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The case of a 7-month-old boy with vertically acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and multifocal primary cerebral lymphoma is reported. Neither neurological nor neuroradiological findings contributed towards the appropriate diagnosis. Positive Epstein-Barr virus DNA, assessed by means of polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid, strongly suggested a diagnosis of primary cerebral lymphoma, which was subsequently confirmed by autopsy.
Conclusions The detection of Epstein-Barr virus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid is useful for the diagnosis of primary cerebral lymphoma.
No preview · Article · May 1998 · European Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequency and severity of chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) ulcerative infections were recorded in six HIV-infected children with severe immunodeficiency (mean CD4 + T lymphocytes/cmm = 39.4: range 8-66). The first episode of HSV infection consisted of vesicular-crusty lesions affecting the centro-facial cutis area. In five cases, relapses occurred 4 months later in the form of chronic ulcerative lesions that were always accompanied by a significant loss of tissue. Furthermore, three of the six children also showed perianal ulcerative lesions. Cytodiagnostic analysis revealed the typical cells in balloon degeneration; all of the children had HSV-1-positive vesicular fluid sample cultures. In our experience, chronic ulcerative HSV infection is relatively frequent in HIV-infected children (6.6%), and has unusual clinical manifestations with a good initial response to acyclovir treatment. Relapses are common and become increasingly worse and less responsive to treatment.
No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and recurrent bacterial pulmonary infections were treated using a Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP)-mask twice a day for 12 months. At the end of the study, a reduction in the number of pulmonary infections [mean (SD) 2.1 (0.9) vs 4.5 (1) p < 0.0001] and antibiotic courses [mean (SD) 1.5 (0.7) vs 2.4 (0.9) p < 0.021] was noted. The PEP-mask is a chest physiotherapy technique for removing infected secretions and optimizing airway functions that is also useful in HIV-infected children.
No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Acta Paediatrica