R Basar

Hacettepe University, Engüri, Ankara, Turkey

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Publications (26)18.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Variations on the neuromuscular structures of the upper limb reflect the complex development of that region. Many of them may be important during surgical and/or diagnostic procedures; however, some of them are of academic interest. Here we report a case of six neuromuscular variations in a single upper limb. During routine educational dissection for the undergraduate medical students at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, we came across six variations on the left upper limb of a 43-year-old well-built male cadaver. We conformed to the steps described in Grant's Dissector during the dissection, and photographed the case with a Nikon Coolpix camera. The biceps brachii showed an accessory head that originated from the tendon of pectoralis major, ran downwards superficial to the long head and joined the distal 1/3 of the muscle mass. A thin muscle band accompanying the lateral side of the pectoralis major was identified as pectoralis quartus. It was originated from the sixth rib and inserted to the coracoid process. The coracobrachialis was double-headed having a common origin from the coracoid process, separating into two after a short course and joining again at the middle level of the arm. Musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Instead, it ran beneath the two bellies of the muscle. The lateral cord of the brachial plexus passed between the two bellies of coracobrachialis; then divided into musculocutaneous nerve and the lateral root of the median nerve at a lower level than usual. The right upper limb showed no variations. The variations described here maybe commonly encountered individually; however, the combination of six of them in a single arm is previously unreported.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
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    ABSTRACT: During the routine gross anatomical dissection of the right inguinal region of a 45-year-old male cadaver, a variation was observed both in the inferior epigastric artery and the inferior epigastric vein. In this case, the right inferior epigastric artery originated from the femoral artery 13 mm inferior to the inguinal ligament. Additionally, in this cadaver, the single right inferior epigastric vein drained into femoral vein 8 mm inferior to the inguinal ligament. The distal origin of the inferior epigastric artery from the femoral artery and the lower drainage of the single inferior epigastric vein to the femoral vein must be taken into consideration by surgeons.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Folia morphologica
  • E. Huri · I. Tatar · M. Sargon · C. Germiyanoğlu · R. Başar

    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · European Urology Supplements
  • R Başar · M.F. Sargon · I Tekdemir · A Elhan
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    ABSTRACT: Both the course and localization of the transverse facial artery are described, based upon the bilateral dissection of heads from 20 human cadavers. Its anatomical relationships with the mandibular fossa, the articular tubercle, the zygomatic arch, the parotid duct and the maxillary artery are studied and morphometric features are calculated. Furthermore, the transverse facial territory was examined. This territory was supplied by a single perforating branch in 28 cases, by two perforating branches in 10 and by three perforating branches in 2. Knowledge of the course and relationships of the transverse facial artery should help to protect this artery from the risk for transection. However, the variable course of the transverse facial artery must always be taken into consideration by the clinicians during surgical procedures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Morphologie
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    IM Ziyal · B Bilginer · OE Ozcan · R Basar · LN Sekhar · T Ozgen
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the mobilization of all cranial nerves with drilling of several bony structure,cutting of ligaments, folds and dural attachments were performed via different skull baseapproaches.Twenty cadaveric head specimens filled with microfil were dissected bilaterally. On 5 dryskulls, important bony structures were also studied.We observed that the mobilization of the nerves II, III, VI, VIII, and XII were not easycomparing to other cranial nerves. The subfrontal parenchymal tissue should be removedand the olfactory nerve should be dissected for mobilization of the first cranial nerve. Themobilization of the nerves IV, V, VII, IX, and XI were dramatically remarkable after drillingof superior orbital fissure, foramen ovale, foramen rotundum, Fallopian canal, and jugularforamen.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data related to the number of commissural axons found in various species. Although the corpus callosum has been investigated in cat, there are no data on the number of its myelinated axons. Additionally, the number of myelinated axons of anterior, posterior and habenular commissures are not documented for the cat. Therefore, we aimed to examine the topographic distribution and regional numerical differences of myelinated axons in encephalic commissures of the cat. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, from March 2003 to July 2003. The myelinated axons of the encephalic commissures of one cat were counted in this study. In parts of the corpus callosum, a statistically significant difference was found between rostrum and genu, rostrum and truncus, genu and truncus, genu and splenium and truncus and splenium. However, no statistically significant difference was found between rostrum and splenium. When comparing the number of myelinated axons of anterior, posterior and habenular commissures, statistically significant differences were found between anterior and habenular commissures, and between posterior and habenular commissures. No statistically significant difference was found between anterior and posterior commissures. These numerical data, evaluated by quantitative analytical statistical methods, might be useful in filling the lack of information on the mean numbers of myelinated axons of different commissures. Knowledge of the number of myelinated axons in different parts of the corpus callosum may also be very important when performing surgical procedures of the corpus callosum, such as commissurectomies.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · Neurosciences
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) applied to the pelvic region on testicular histology and spermatogenesis. ESWL (2000 shock waves over a 20-min period at 18 kV) was applied to 12 adult New Zealand male rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three equal groups: those in Group 1 were sacrificed 1 h after the intervention, those in Group 2 were sacrificed on the 3rd day and those in Group 3 were sacrificed on the 7th day. Both testicles were removed for histopathological examination to investigate the effects of ESWL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to detect ultrastructural changes. Epididymal and testicular touch-print preparations were stained with SperMac stain in order to evaluate the morphology of the spermatozoa. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of sperm morphology (p = 0.386). TEM revealed only huge vacuolation of Sertoli cells and diffuse edema in the mitochondria of Sertoli cells. No detrimental effect of ESWL on sperm morphology was detected in this study. We conclude that shock waves do not cause severe permanent effects but only transient disorders in testes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is detailed knowledge on the organization of the motor neurons supplying the extraocular muscles, there are still some discrepancies concerning the results of different studies. This study is planned to reexamine the distribution of the motor neurons in the oculomotor nucleus of the rat. In the present study we used 20 young adult Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups which represent four extraocular muscle groups innervated by oculomotor nerve, namely medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus and inferior oblique muscle groups. For each rat 1-2 µl of 30% Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is used as a tracer. Multiple injections were made to fully infiltrate the individual muscles. After determining the position of the medial rectus subgroup, injections were applied into more than one muscle in a single experiment in order to decide the proper localization of the motor neuron subgroups in relation to each other. For each of the muscle groups five rats were injected with HRP. The rostral end of the nucleus begins with a compact neuron group belonging to medial rectus subgroup. However, at the caudal end the neurons were scattered in a wider area gradually decreasing in number. Neurons innervating the medial rectus muscle were located ipsilaterally within the ventral and ventrolateral portions of the nucleus extending throghout its rostrocaudal length. Motoneurons belonging to the inferior rectus subgroup were observed ipsilaterally within the gap between the median raphe and medial end of the medial rectus subgroup. Motoneurons of the inferior oblique subgroup formed an ovoid cell mass ipsilaterally and slightly dorsal to the medial and inferior rectus subgroups. Neurons of the superior rectus subgroup were localized contralaterally within the caudal two thirds of the nucleus. The neurons of this subgroup were located at the ventral and ventromedial parts of the inferior oblique subgroup and dorsal to the inferior and the medial rectus subgroups.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002
  • Article: Editorial
    MD Aksit · R Basar · AB Tascioglu · HH Celik

    No preview · Article · Jan 2002
  • K M Erbil · M F Sargon · H H Celik · R Basar · D Aksit
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    ABSTRACT: Transverse foramens of 250 cervical vertebras were examined. There were accessory foramina and variations in shape and number in 10 out of 250 cervical vertebras. Since such a variation of foramens, through which the vertebral artery passes, has not been detected in the literature, these ten cases are to be considered.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Morphologie
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    ABSTRACT: We report here a connecting branch between the musculocutaneous and the median nerves in a 42 years old male cadaver. The connecting branch was 8 cm in length and 3 mm in width. One of the brachial veins and the brachial artery were located between the roots of the median nerve and the second brachial vein was present between the connecting branch and the median nerve. These kinds of variations may effect the venous return and may cause edema in the upper extremities. Additionally, variations of these nerves have an importance during operations of this region.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Morphologie
  • S Ay · I Tekdemir · U Sayli · A Elhan · K M Erbil · R Başar
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    ABSTRACT: The radial nerve's course from the axillary region, branch patterns and the relation of the nerve to fixed anatomical landmarks in the arm region were studied in 27 embalmed intact cadavers. The radial nerve and its relation with the sulcus nervus radialis (SNR) was analyzed. The direct contact of the nerve with humerus in SNR was observed during the dissections. The following measurements were made: the total length of the humerus (the palpable uppermost point of the tuberculum majus and the lateral epicondyle); proximal safe zone (the tuberculum majus and the proximal beginning of the SNR); distal safe zone (the intercondylar axis and the middle of SNR); lateral safe zone (the lateral epicondyle and the distal end of SNR). In conclusion, it was aimed to correlate the osseus palpable landmarks of humerus with the course of the radial nerve for a safe surgery as the sulcus nervi radialis region is one of the main risky areas for the radial nerve palsies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
  • Halil BASAR · Ruhgun BASAR · M. Murat BASAR · Mine ERBIL
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    ABSTRACT: This study was applied on 9665 cases between January 1993 and October 1998. Of these, 6985 (72.3%) were urologic patients and 2680 (27.7%) were autopsy cases. The patients having urinary complaint investigated by urine analysis and kidney-ureter-bladder film (KUB), routinely. In all patients who have pathological urine, ultrasonography exam was done and in all patients who established an abnormality on ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography (IVP) was taken, also. We established the horseshoe kidney in 23 of patients (1/304) and in 6 of autopsy cases (1/447) with overall incidence 1/333. There were 21 male and 8 female with horseshoe kidney (male/female = 2.6/1). Abdominal discomfort with lower lumbar pain and Rovsing's sign were seen in 56.5% and in 65.2% of patients respectively. We concluded that horseshoe kidney incidence is almost the same as reported in the literature, although its clinical appearance is higher in our urologic patient population. In the urological out-patient evaluation, at least Rovsing's sign should be applied to all patients with lower lumbar pain with vague abdominal discomfort and an abdominal ultrasonographic exam should be applied, if this sign is positive.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
  • K. Mine Erbil · S Onderoğlu · R Başar
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes a complex bilateral variation in the formation of lumbar plexus in a 32 year old male cadaver. On the left side the plexus was postfixed and located posterior to the psoas major muscle. The femoral nerve was formed by the union of anterior rami of the second, third, fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves. On the right side, the lumbar plexus was prefixed. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh was formed by the union of the anterior rami of the first and second lumbar spinal nerves. The femoral nerve formed by branches from the first, second, third and fifth lumbar spinal nerves while the obturator nerve was formed by the union of the first, second and third lumbar spinal nerves. The right lumbar plexus was located in the substance of the psoas major muscle. In the present case, the formation of branches of the lumbar plexus were different from the previous data present in the literature.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
  • M M Aldur · F Gürcan · R Başar · M D Akşit
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective MRI investigation was performed to investigate septum pellucidum (SP) anomalies in 505 (242 male, 263 female) non-psychotic persons. The mean age of the population was 39.179 +/- 0.904 (40.461 +/- 1.395 male, 38 +/- 1.166 female). There was no significant difference between the means of age in the male and female groups (t-test, DF = 479, p > 0.05). The SP anomalies were classified as cavitation anomalies (Type I) and absence of the SP (Type II). Type I anomalies were subdivided into four groups as isolated cavum septi pellucidi (Ia), cavum septi pellucidi et cavum vergae (Ib), anterior small triangular cavities (Ic), and cysts of the SP (Id). The incidences of the anomalies (Type I + Type II) were 17.31%, 1.89%, 7.55%, 3.53%, 7%, 4.55%, 4.76% and 6.06% for the age groups of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years respectively. The anomalies were very significantly more frequent in the 0-9 years age group than in the other age groups (chi 2 = 9.7858, DF = 1, p < 0.05). The incidences of the anomalies (Type I + Type II) were 6.34%, 5.37%, 7.22% for the whole, male, and female populations, respectively. These values were 1.39%, 1.65% and 1.14% for Type Ia, 2.77%, 2.89% and 2.66% for Type Ib, and 1.78%, 0.83% and 2.66% for Type Ic. Both Type Id and II anomalies were determined in only one case for each group in females (0.2%). There was no significant difference between the incidences of the anomalies in both sexes (chi 2 = 0.45, DF = 1, p > 0.05).
    No preview · Article · May 1999 · Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
  • M. M. Aldur · F. Gürcan · R. Basar · M. D. Aksit

    No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate changes in histology and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in cavernosal tissues from rats with neurogenic erectile dysfunction induced experimentally. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups and underwent a sham operation (control, group 1), unilateral (group 2) or bilateral (group 3) cavernosal nerve resection. Three months later they were killed and the cavernosal tissues analysed histologically by light and transmission electron microscopy, with NOS activity detected using an NADPH-diaphorase staining technique. On light and electron microscopy, while penile nerves and cavernosal smooth muscle cells had a normal morphological appearance in the eight control rats, there were degenerative changes of the myelinated penile nerves and axonal fibrosis in groups 2 and 3. However, these changes were not significant. Using NADPH-diaphorase staining, NOS activity was detected in all three groups in endothelial cells and cavernosal structures. However, the staining was more intense in endothelial cells and cavernosal muscles of rats in group 2 than in the other groups. NOS activity was increased in the cavernosal tissue after cavernosal denervation, but the pharmacological action of nitric oxide may be impaired.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · BJU International
  • M Başar · M F Sargon · H Başar · H Celik · R Başar · M Yildiz · Z Akalin
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the biopsy patterns of penile tissues taken during operation from patients subjected to surgical treatment for veno-occlusive dysfunction, and evaluated the importance of penile biopsy. We evaluated the findings from 17 patients with venous impotence. Fourteen of them underwent total vein ligation and the rest penile prosthesis implantation. Tissue speciments taken from superficial and deep dorsal veins, tunica albuginea and corpus cavernosum during operation were examined under electron microscope. Tissue specimens taken from 3 cadavers were used as the control group. Although the deep and superficial vein specimens of all patients did not show significant differences, oedema and increase of fibroblasts in collagen fibres of the corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea were demonstrated. We concluded that penile biopsy as an invasive method does not give enough information about the choice of treatment for erectile dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · International Urology and Nephrology
  • C C Denk · M Aldur · H H Celik · R Basar
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    ABSTRACT: Anomalies of digastric muscle are not very rare. During a routine dissection, it was found on a cadaver that the digastric muscles on both sides had no fibrous slings. It was also observed that the two intermediate tendons crossed over the stylohyoid muscles. Such anomalies should be considered during the evaluation of the floor of the mouth after CT examination of MR imaging, and during surgical procedures as well.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1998 · Morphologie
  • H Ozan · A Atasever · A Sinav · C Simsek · R Basar
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of a routine dissection of the anterior region of the arm an accessory muscle was observed in the flexor aspect of the right arm of a 64-year-old male cadaver. This accessory muscle, which was considered to be the third head of the biceps brachii muscle originated from the inserting tendon of the deltoid muscle. The muscle gave rise to three tendons as it approached the cubital fossa. Two of these tendons inserted to the bicipital aponeurosis whereas the third tendon inserted to the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle. Dissection of the forearm on both sides revealed that the palmaris longus muscles was absent bilaterally. Mechanical effects of the insertion tendons of the accessory head of the biceps brachii on the median nerve, especially during the supination of the forearm, are discussed. For radiodiagnostic procedures, MRI images of the accessory head were obtained in the coronal and axial planes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Kaibogaku Zasshi

Publication Stats

182 Citations
18.74 Total Impact Points


  • 1995-2013
    • Hacettepe University
      • Department of Anatomy
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey
  • 1994
    • Gulhane Military Medical Academy
      • Department of Anatomy
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey