[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism is a complex, heterogeneous, behaviorally-defined disorder characterized by disruptions of the nervous system and of other systems such as the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. In a previous genome wide screen, we reported linkage of autism with a 1.2 Megabase interval on chromosome 5q31. For the current study, we hypothesized that 3 of the genes in this region could be involved in the development of autism: 1) paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1), which is a key regulator of hormones within the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, 2) neurogenin 1, a transcription factor involved in neurogenesis, and 3) histone family member Y (H2AFY), which is involved in X-chromosome inactivation in females and could explain the 4:1 male:female gender distortion present in autism.
A total of 276 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) repository composed of 1086 individuals including 530 affected children were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging the three candidate genes were genotyped on the initial linkage sample of 116 families. A second step of analysis was performed using tightly linked SNPs covering the PITX1 gene. Association was evaluated using the FBAT software version 1.7.3 for single SNP analysis and the HBAT command from the same package for haplotype analysis respectively.
Association between SNPs and autism was only detected for PITX1. Haplotype analysis within PITX1 showed evidence for overtransmission of the A-C haplotype of markers rs11959298 - rs6596189 (p = 0.0004). Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the A-C haplotype risk allele were 2.54 and 1.59 fold more likely to be autistic than individuals who were not carrying the allele, respectively.
Strong and consistent association was observed between a 2 SNPs within PITX1 and autism. Our data suggest that PITX1, a key regulator of hormones within the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, may be implicated in the etiology of autism.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A continuous array of overlapping clones covering the entire human chromosome 21q was constructed from human yeast artificial chromosome libraries using sequence-tagged sites as landmarks specifically detected by polymerase chain reaction. The yeast artificial chromosome contiguous unit starts with pericentromeric and ends with subtelomeric loci of 21q. The resulting order of sequence-tagged sites is consistent with other physical and genetic mapping data. This set of overlapping clones will promote our knowledge of the structure of this chromosome and the function of its genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physical mapping of the human genome has until now been envisioned through single chromosome strategies. We demonstrate that by using large insert yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) a whole genome approach becomes feasible. YACs (22,000) of 810 kb mean size (5 genome equivalents) have been fingerprinted to obtain individual patterns of restriction fragments detected by a LINE-1 (L1) probe. More than 1000 contigs were assembled. Ten randomly chosen contigs were validated by metaphase chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization, as well as by analyzing the inter-Alu PCR patterns of their constituent YACs. We estimate that 15% to 20% of the human genome, mainly the L1-rich regions, is already covered with contigs larger than 3 Mb.