[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensive chemotherapy regimens containing cytarabine have substantially improved remission durability and overall survival in younger adults with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, there have been no long-term follow-up results for patients treated with these regimens. We present long-term survival outcomes from a pivotal phase II trial of rituximab, hyper-fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine (R-HCVAD/MA). At 15 years of follow-up (median: 13·4 years), the median failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients was 4·8 years and 10·7 years, respectively. The FFS seems to have plateaued after 10 years, with an estimated 15-year FFS of 30% in younger patients (≤65 years). Patients who achieved complete response (CR) after 2 cycles had a favourable median FFS of 8·8 years. Six patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukaemia (MDS/AML) whilst in first CR. The 10-year cumulative incidence of MDS/AML of patients in first remission was 6·2% (95% confidence interval: 2·5-12·2%). In patients with newly diagnosed MCL, R-HCVAD/MA showed sustained efficacy, with a median OS exceeding 10 years in all patients and freedom from disease recurrence of nearly 15 years in almost one-third of the younger patients (≤65 years).
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This multicenter phase II trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in place of conventional doxorubicin in standard RCHOP therapy for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Patients > 60 years of age who had stage II to IV disease were included. Treatment consisted of rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously (IV); cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 IV; PLD 40 mg/m2 (maximum, 90 mg) intravenously over 1 hour; and vincristine 2.0 mg IV all on day 1. Additionally prednisone, 40 mg/m2 was given orally on days 1 to 1-5 (DRCOP). Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for 6 to 8 cycles.
Eighty patients were enrolled and were evaluable for toxicity. The median age was 69 years. All except one had additional cardiac risk factors for anthracycline induced cardiac toxicity beyond advanced age. Based on the intent-to-treat analysis in 79 eligible patients, overall response rate was 86%, and complete response rate was 78%. Cardiac events of > grade 3 were identified in 3 patients (4%); grade 1-2 events, mostly asymptomatic declines in ejection fraction, were noted in an additional 16 patients. There was one death attributed to cardiac failure. The estimated 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 52% and 70%, respectively.
DRCOP represents an effective strategy for potentially mitigating cardiotoxicity in elderly patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Future studies to incorporate baseline cardiac risk assessment as well as long-term follow-up, and biospecimen collection for correlative science should be undertaken.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 90Y-ibritumomab-tiuxetan (90YIT) was used as a first-line therapy for patients with early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) or marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL). Thirty-one patients were treated, with an overall 3-month response rate of 100% (68% complete response, 29% unconfirmed complete response and 3% partial response). At a median follow-up of 56 months, ten patients (32%) had disease relapse or progression. The progression-free rates at 3 and 5 years were lower in males, patients with FL, stage II diseaseand non-bulky disease, although they did not reach statistical significance. Grade 3–4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anaemia were 61%, 35%, and 3%, respectively. 90YIT was well tolerated, including in those patients over 60 years old, and achieved high response rates in patients with early-stage low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Bulky disease did not adversely affect tumour response.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapsed aggressive lymphomas are often treated with platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) followed by an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Response rates to PBC in patients with relapsed aggressive lymphomas are c. 60%, and non-responders have a dismal prognosis. Novel therapies for aggressive lymphomas, including those failing PBC, are needed. We performed a phase II study of paclitaxel, topotecan and rituximab (TTR) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell, follicular grade IIIB, or transformed lymphomas, including those who previously failed PBC. The median age of the 72 patients enrolled was 54 years. Responding patients were offered ASCT after two courses. The overall response rate was 69% for all patients (n = 49/71) and 45% for those who previously failed PBC (n = 9/20). With a median follow up of 125 months for the censored observations, the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival at 5 years was 39% and 27%, respectively. Responding patients who received ASCT had an OS of 63% at 5 years. Our results demonstrate that TTR is an effective salvage regimen for patients with relapsed aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including those who previously failed PBC. Given the declining therapeutic outcomes of salvage PBC in the rituximab era, further evaluation of TTR is warranted.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 90YIT is approved for the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma or as consolidation therapy after first line chemotherapy. Its role as therapy for the front line treatment of early stage B cell indolent lymphoma is under investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective randomized phase II study to evaluate two chemotherapy regimens: (i) rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (R-HCVAD) alternating with rituximab, high-dose methotrexate, and cytarabine (R-MA) and (ii) rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This study randomized patients aged ≤60 years with DLBCL and an age-adjusted international prognostic index ≥2 to R-HCVAD/R-MA or R-CHOP based on a Bayesian adaptive algorithm. Interim analysis of the first 26 eligible patients showed that the complete response rate (CRR) was higher with R-HCVAD/R-MA than R-CHOP (P = 0·03); thus, R-CHOP arm was closed. In the final analysis, 49 and 10 eligible patients were treated in R-HCVAD/R-MA and R-CHOP arms respectively; CRR were 82% and 60% respectively (P = 0·13); 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 75·7% and 77·8% respectively (P = 0·53). In the R-HCVAD/R-MA arm, 3-year PFS rates in patients aged 46-60 years and ≤45 years were 70·3% and 87·1% respectively (P = 0·13), and the treatment-associated early mortality rate in patients >45 years was 12%. In conclusion, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with excellent outcome in patients ≤45 years old. However, in patients >45 years old, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with unacceptable mortality rates.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACH2, a B-cell specific transcription factor, plays a critical role in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Bortezomib (Velcade(TM)) is widely used to treat relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients despite varying clinical outcomes. As one of the potential mechanisms of action, bortezomib was reported to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the redox-sensitive intracellular mechanism that might play a critical role in bortezomib response in MCL cells. We demonstrated that in MCL cells that are sensitive to bortezomib treatments, BACH2 was translocated to the nucleus in response to bortezomib and induced apoptotic responses through the modulation of anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic genes. On the other hand, in bortezomib resistant cells, BACH2 expression was confined in the cytoplasm and no suppression of antiapoptotic or antioxidative genes, Nrf2, Gss, CAT, HO-1 and MCL1, was detected. Importantly, levels of BACH2 were significantly higher in bortezomib sensitive MCL patient cells, indicating that BACH2 levels could be an indicator for clinical bortezomib responses. BACH2 translocation to the cytoplasm after phosphorylation was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors and combinatory regimens of bortezomib and PI3K inhibitors sensitized MCL cells to bortezomib. These data suggest that cellular distribution of BACH2 in response to ROS determines the threshold for the induction of apoptosis. Therapies that inhibit BACH2 phosphorylation could be the key for increasing bortezomib cytotoxic response in patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of orbit for conjunctival MALT lymphoma. The yield of other staging tests at baselin were also evaluated. 21 consecutive patients treated for conjunctival MALT lymphoma were retrospectively studied. Lymphoma was staged both according to the Ann Arbor staging and the 7th edition of the AJCC. Findings on MRI of orbit, whole body PET/CT, CT of chest/abdomen/pelvis, bone marrow (BM) biopsy, and gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were recorded. 17 patients had an orbital MRI. Fourteen of 17 patients (82%) with obvious conjunctival MALT lymphoma on clinical examination had a negative MRI. Only 3 patients had subtle conjunctival enhancement on orbital MRI. Ann Arbor stage at presentation was as follows: Stage IE (15 patients), stage IIE (2 patients), and stage IV (4 patients). Eighteen of 21 patients had total body PET/CT; four patients (22%) had hypermetabolic activity evident on the PET scan. All 21 patients had bilateral BM biopsies. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) had GI endoscopy. None of the patients had a positive BM biopsy or findings on GI endoscopy. Our data suggest that orbital MRI has very low yield for identification of conjunctival MALT lymphoma. Clinical exam is critical in diagnosing and assessing treatment response for conjunctival MALT lymphoma. The yield for GI endoscopy and BM biopsy also maybe low in staging of conjunctival MALT lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI; Marqibo(®) ; M) is active in relapsed and refractory lymphomas, and approved in the United States for relapsed and refractory adult acute lymphocytic leukaemia. We evaluated VSLI (2·0 mg/m(2) without dose cap) substituted for non-liposomal vincristine (VCR) in a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone ± ritiximab (CHOP±R) regimen, creating CHMP±R in 72 untreated, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients, including 60 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The overall response rate was 96% (69/72) including complete response (CR) in 65 (90%) and unconfirmed CR in 2 (3%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were not reached at median follow-up of 8 and 10·2 years, respectively. The 5- and 10-year PFS and OS were 75%, 63%, 87%, and 77%, respectively. Despite VSLI exposure of up to 35 mg, the safety profile of CHMP±R was comparable to that reported for CHOP±R. Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy was reported in 2 (3%) patients; there was no reported Grade 3/4 constipation. CHMP±R was highly active, generally well tolerated, and compared favourably to historical trials with R-CHOP in DLBCL. This enhanced activity probably reflects VCR dose intensification, pharmacokinetic optimization, and enhanced delivery afforded by VSLI. A Phase 3 trial of R-CHMP versus R-CHOP in elderly patients with untreated DLBCL is ongoing.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with lymphoma are at risk of development of bone mineral density (BMD) loss from therapy with high-dose corticosteroids and alkylating agents. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, may prevent this complication of therapy. We evaluated the effect of ZA on the change in BMD and surrogate biomarkers in patients with lymphoma receiving initial chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our phase III trial randomized 74 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma and a baseline BMD of ≥ -2.0 to receive oral calcium and vitamin D daily with or without ZA at enrollment and at 6 months after enrollment. BMD was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after enrollment. Secondary biomarker endpoints were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of patients had baseline osteopenia. Fifty-three patients were evaluable for response: 24 received ZA and had stable BMD during the observation period, whereas 29 patients in the control group had decreased BMD (P < .05 at lumbar spine and bilateral femoral neck). Twenty-one randomized patients were not evaluable for response because of lymphoma progression or death, withdrawn consent/incomplete testing, or ineligibility. Bone biomarkers were higher in the control group at all intervals after treatment (P < .001). No fractures or intervention-related toxicities were observed during this trial. CONCLUSIONS: Newly diagnosed patients with lymphoma are at risk of low BMD, which may worsen with therapy. Treatment with ZA effectively stabilizes BMD and prevents bone loss. Our data suggest that BMD testing and prophylaxis should be considered as an early intervention for a preventable problem.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The baseline absolute monocyte count and absolute lymphocyte count were used to generate a prognostic index (the AMLPI) for survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
Data from 245 patients with DLBCL who were treated with standard R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, prednisone) were reviewed. By using the values previously reported for the AMLPI, its prognostic value was examined in our population.
After a median follow-up of 22 months for censored observations, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for the international prognostic index (IPI) 0-2 and 3-5 risk groups were 73% and 58%, respectively (P = .0004); comparable overall survival (OS) rates were 88% and 68%, respectively (P < .0001). For patients with IPI scores of 0-2, 1-year PFS rates for AMLPI low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 92%, 89%, and 80%, respectively (P = .022); comparable 1-year OS rates were 96%, 95%, and 80%, respectively (P = .049). By multivariate analysis, with the adjustment of IPI in the model, AMLPI effects (low- vs. high-risk groups) on PFS and OS rates were significant, with P = .046 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.402 [95% CI, 0.164-0.986] and P = .052 (HR 0.325 [95% CI, 0.104-1.011]), respectively.
The absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts prognostic index (the AMLPI) may add prognostic value beyond that of the IPI for patients with DLBCL who receive R-CHOP.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEPatients with follicular lymphoma (FL) registered in the F2-study and initially managed without treatment were analyzed to describe the presentation and outcome of a watch and wait (W&W) strategy in the rituximab era, to identify parameters for initiating treatment, and to evaluate whether initial W&W could have deleterious effects on treatment efficacy after progression or relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Between 2003 and 2005, 120 patients selected from the 1,093 treatment-naive patients with FL in the F2-study cohort were initially managed expectantly (W&W), and 107 patients were assessed. Most of these patients (80%) had disseminated disease with a low tumor burden according to Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes Folliculaires criteria.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 64 months, treatment was initiated in 54 patients (50%), with a median delay of 55 months for the entire cohort. In a univariate analysis, involvement of more than four nodal areas (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26) and serum albumin less than 3.5 g/dL (HR, 3.51) were predictive of a shorter time to lymphoma treatment initiation. In a multivariate analysis, only involvement of more than four nodal areas remained significant (HR, 2.32). The 4-year freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) rate of W&W patients (79%; 95% CI, 69% to 85%) was not inferior to that of a subgroup of 242 patients from the F2-study cohort with good prognosis characteristics who were initially treated with a rituximab-based regimen (69%; 95% CI, 61% to 76%; P = .103). CONCLUSION
In the rituximab era, patients with FL in a selected prognostically favorable group can still be managed with W&W. W&W does not seem to have detrimental effects on FFTF and overall survival rates after treatment.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT) pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies. We conducted a phase I dose-finding and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study of SB1518, a potent JAK2 inhibitor, in patients with relapsed lymphoma.
Patients and methods:
Patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma of any type except Burkitt's or CNS lymphoma were enrolled. Patient cohorts received escalating doses of SB1518 orally once daily for 28-day cycles. Response was evaluated after 8 weeks.
Thirty-four patients received doses of 100 to 600 mg/d. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Treatment was well tolerated, with mostly grade 1 and 2 toxicities. Gastrointestinal toxicities were the most common treatment-related events. Cytopenias were infrequent and modest. Pharmacologically active concentrations were achieved at all doses. Dose-related linear increases in area under the concentration-time curve were seen on day 1, with no significant accumulation on day 15. Mean terminal half-life was 1 to 4 days, and mean time to peak concentration ranged from 5 to 9 hours. SB1518 inhibited JAK2 signaling at 4 hours postdose at all levels. Increases in fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT-3) ligand, reflecting FLT-3 inhibition, were seen in most patients. There were three partial responses (≥300 mg/d) and 15 patients with stable disease (SD), with most responses lasting longer than 2 months. Seven of 13 SDs had tumor reductions of 4% to 46%.
SB1518 has encouraging activity in relapsed lymphoma, providing the first proof-of-principle of the potential therapeutic value of targeting the JAK/STAT pathway in lymphoma in the clinical setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of rituximab and lenalidomide has shown promise for the treatment of mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) in preclinical studies. We aimed to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide when combined with rituximab in a phase 1 trial and to assess the efficacy and safety of this combination in a phase 2 trial in patients with relapsed or refractory MCL.
Patients with relapsed or refractory MCL who had received one to four previous lines of treatment were enrolled in this single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial at MD Anderson Cancer Center. In phase 1, to identify the MTD of lenalidomide, four patient cohorts received escalating doses (10, 15, 20, and 25 mg) of daily oral lenalidomide on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle. 375 mg/m(2) intravenous rituximab was also administered in four weekly doses during cycle 1 only. In phase 2, patients received rituximab plus the MTD of lenalidomide, following the same cycles as for phase 1. Treatment in both phases continued until disease progression, stem-cell transplantation, or severe toxicity. The primary efficacy endpoint was overall response (complete or partial response). The secondary efficacy endpoint was survival. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate response duration, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294632.
52 patients were enrolled between Feb 10, 2006 and July 30, 2009, 14 in phase 1 and 44 (including six patients who received the MTD of lenalidomide in the phase 1 portion) in phase 2. The MTD was 20 mg lenalidomide. One patient who was treated with 25 mg lenalidomide developed a grade 4 non-neutropenic infection and died. In the phase 2 portion of the study, grade 3-4 haematological toxicities included neutropenia (29 patients), lymphopenia (16 patients), leucopenia (13 patients), and thrombocytopenia (ten patients). There were only two episodes of febrile neutropenia. Among 44 patients in phase 2, 25 (57%) had an overall response: 16 (36%) had a complete response and nine (20%) had a partial response. The median response duration was 18·9 months (95% CI 17·0 months to not reached [NR]). The median progression-free survival was 11·1 months (95% CI 8·3 to 24·9 months), and the median overall survival was 24·3 months (19·8 months to NR). Five of 14 patients who had received bortezomib treatment before enrolment achieved an overall response.
Oral lenalidomide plus rituximab is well tolerated and effective for patients with relapsed or refractory MCL.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Lancet Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in combination with standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (RABVD) in patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In this phase 2 study, patients with chemotherapy-naive, advanced-stage cHL were treated with rituximab 375 mg/m(2) weekly for 6 weeks and standard ABVD for 6 cycles. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS) at 5 years. Eighty-five patients were enrolled, of whom 78 were eligible. With a median follow-up duration of 68 months (range, 26-110), and based on an intent-to-treat analysis, the 5-year EFS and overall survival rates were 83% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year EFS for patients with stage III/IV cHL was 82%. Furthermore, the 5-year EFS for patients with an International Prognostic Score of 0-2 was 88% and for those with a score of > 2, it was 73%. The most frequent treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (23%), fatigue (9%), and nausea (8%). Our results demonstrate that the addition of rituximab to ABVD is safe and has a promising clinical activity in patients with advanced-stage cHL. These data are currently being confirmed in a multicenter randomized trial.