Publications (2)1.82 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: In prenatal and pediatric cardiovascular surgery knowledge of luminal diameters of the aortic and great pulmonary pathways is essential. The internal diameters of the aortic and great pulmonary pathways in 131 human foetuses (65 male, 66 female) were studied by means of anatomical, digital and statistical methods. During foetal development the absolute diameters revealed a linear increase. Correlation coefficients between these diameters and foetal age were statistically significant (P< or =0.05) for each age group and reached following values: r1 = 0.70 for the aortic bulb, r2 = 0.79 for the ascending aorta, r3 = 0.77 for the aortic isthmus, r4 = 0.79 for the descending aorta, r5 = 0.63 for the pulmonary trunk, r6 = 0.36 for the arterial duct, r7 = 0.46 for the right pulmonary artery and r8 = 0.49 for the left one. Diameters of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk indicated the relative increase in the values. A different tendency was observed for the internal diameters of the arterial duct and both pulmonary arteries, which were relatively decreased with increased foetal age. The largest diameter was observed in the arterial duct, the intermediate--in the right pulmonary artery and the smallest--in the left pulmonary artery. The cross-sectional area of the descending aorta was equal to the sums of the sectional areas of the aortic isthmus and the arterial duct (r9 = 0.97). The cross-sectional area of the pulmonary trunk was equal to the sums of the sectional areas of the both pulmonary arteries and the arterial duct (r10 = 0.91).
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ABSTRACT: During ontogenesis an imbalance is observable in the development of the skeletal and vascular systems. By means of anatomical and radiological methods the gonadal veins were studied in relation to the vertebral column in 60 human foetuses of both sexes aged from 4 to 6 months of prenatal life. In male foetuses aged 4--5 months the origin of the gonadal veins projected onto the sacral apex (r(1)=0.95, r(3)=0.85), and in 6(th) month they extended below the vertebral column (r(1')=0.80, r(3')=0.90). In female foetuses the origin of the gonadal veins in the 4(th) month projected symmetrically onto S(1) (r(5)=0.70, r(7)=0.70). In the 5(th) month of intrauterine life the origin of the left ovarian vein was found at S2 (r(7')=0.80) and the origin of the right one at S1-S2 (r(5')=0.80). In the 6th month the origin of the left ovarian vein was located at S(3) (r(7')=0.80) and the right one at S(2)-S(3) (r(5'')=0.90). The skeletopic analysis of the origin of the gonadal veins demonstrated gender (the origin was higher in females) and syntopic (the origin was higher on the right side) differences (p</=0.05). In foetuses of both sexes aged 4 months of prenatal life the termination of the left gonadal veins projected onto Th(12)-L(1) (r(4)=0.85, r(8)=0.80) and in foetuses aged 5--6 months it projected onto L(1)-L(2) (r(4')=0.90, r(8') = 0.95). In both sexes the termination of the gonadal veins on the right side projected constantly onto L(2) (r(2)=0.90, r(6)=0.95) from the 4(th) to the 6(th) month of intrauterine life. The skeletopic analysis of the termination of the gonadal veins showed syntopic dimorphism (p</=0.05) without gender differences (p>0.05). On the right side the termination of the gonadal (testicular and ovarian) veins projected constantly onto L(2). On the left side the termination of the left gonadal (testicular and ovarian) veins apparently descended by one vertebra (pseudodescensus).
Nicolaus Copernicus University
Toruń, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Poland
- Department of Normal Anatomy