[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently shown that women with endometriosis express an increased amount of telomerase and nucleolin, with concomitant loss of γ-H2AX in eutopic endometrium. To further examine these selected factors that regulate cell fate, in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, we studied the expression of telomerase, nucleolin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and γ-H2AX in ectopic endometriotic deposits from women, and in matched eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue from a baboon model of endometriosis.
Ectopic active peritoneal endometriotic lesions were collected from seven symptomatic women. Endometriosis was induced in six baboons by intra-peritoneal autologous inoculation of menstrual endometrium. Eutopic and matched ectopic endometrial tissues were collected prior to and 6, 12 and 15 months after the induction of endometriosis as previously described. Eutopic endometrium was also obtained from eight healthy fertile control baboons. Immunohistochemistry was performed as previously described, and telomerase activity was confirmed using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay.
All active human endometriotic lesions expressed the proliferative markers but showed weak or absent staining for γ-H2AX. A similar expression pattern of these markers was seen in the ectopic lesions of the baboons with induced disease. In these baboons, the eutopic endometrium also showed intense immunoreactivity for all proliferative markers 6-12 months after induction with a parallel loss of γ-H2AX. The opposite staining pattern was seen in eutopic endometrium of healthy animals and in pre-induction endometrium of animals with induced disease.
Endometriotic lesions have excess proliferative potential; in baboons, these were present within 12 months of the initiation of the disease. In eutopic tissue, these changes appear to be induced by the development of endometriosis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Human Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis-associated infertility has a multifactorial etiology. We tested the hypothesis that the endometrial response to the early embryonic signal, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alters over time in a nonhuman primate model of endometriosis. Animals with experimental or spontaneous endometriosis were treated with hCG (30 IU/d), from d 6 after ovulation for 5 d, via an oviductal cannula. Microarray analysis of endometrial transcripts from baboons treated with hCG at 3 and 6 months of disease (n=6) identified 22 and 165 genes, respectively, whose levels differed more than 2-fold compared with disease-free (DF) animals treated with hCG (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed abnormal responses of known hCG-regulated genes. APOA1, SFRP4, and PAPPA, which are normally down-regulated by hCG were up-regulated by hCG in animals with endometriosis. In contrast, the ability of hCG to induce SERPINA3 was lost. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated dysregulation of C3 and superoxide dismutase 2 proteins. We demonstrate that this abnormal response to hCG persists for up to 15 months after disease induction and that the nature of the abnormal response changes as the disease progresses. Immunohistochemistry showed that this aberrant gene expression was not a consequence of altered LH/choriogonadotropin receptor distribution in the endometrium of animals with endometriosis. We have shown that endometriosis induces complex changes in the response of eutopic endometrium to hCG, which may prevent the acquisition of the full endometrial molecular repertoire necessary for decidualization and tolerance of the fetal allograft. This may in part explain endometriosis-associated implantation failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimentally induced endometriosis in baboons serves as an elegant model to discriminate between endometrial genes which are primarily associated with normal endometrial function and those that are changed by the presence of endometriotic lesions. Since connexin genes are characteristic of the hormonally regulated differentiation of the endometrium, we have examined connexin expression in baboon endometrium to delineate if they are altered in response to the presence of endometriotic lesions. Connexin expression in the endometrium of cycling baboons is similar to that of the human endometrium with Connexin(Cx)43 being primarily seen in the stromal compartment and Cx26 and Cx32 being present predominantly in the epithelium. Although Cx32 is up-regulated during the secretory phase, Cx26 and Cx43 are down-regulated. In the baboon model of induced endometriosis a change in connexin pattern was evident in the presence of endometriotic lesions. In the secretory phase, Cx26 and Cx32 are no longer present in the epithelium but Cx26 is now observed primarily in the stromal cells. Infusion of chorionic gonadotrophin in a manner that mimics blastocyst transit in utero failed to rescue the aberrant stromal expression of Cx26 that is associated with the presence of endometriotic lesions suggesting an impairment of the implantation process. The altered connexin pattern coupled with a loss of the channel protein in the epithelium and a gain of Cx26 in the stromal compartment suggests that the presence of lesions changes the uterine environment and thereby the differentiation programme. This aberrant expression of connexins may be an additional factor that contributes to endometriosis-associated infertility.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Molecular Human Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis has been associated with a reduced response to progesterone in both the eutopic and ectopic endometrium. In this study we evaluated OVGP1 and steroid receptor expression in oviducts of baboons with endometriosis during the midsecretory phase and determined whether progesterone resistance associated with endometriosis also occurs in the oviduct. Oviducts obtained during the window of uterine receptivity (Day 10 postovulation [PO]) from animals with induced and spontaneous disease were compared to control animals during the proliferative stage and in the implantation window as well as animals treated with the progesterone receptor (PGR) antagonist ZK 137.299 (ZK). OVGP1 was significantly higher in animals with endometriosis compared with Day 10 PO controls and was similar to that seen in the late proliferative phase and in ZK-treated animals. Baboons with spontaneous endometriosis also showed a similar persistence of OVGP1, which was correlated with the maintenance of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in the epithelial cells of animals with endometriosis. However, epithelial cell height and the percentage of ciliation were not affected by endometriosis. These data imply that the normal antagonism of progesterone on ESR and OVGP1, which results in their downregulation during the window of implantation, is absent in animals with endometriosis. This was confirmed further when the action of PGR was antagonized in animals without disease, which also resulted in the persistence of ESR1 and OVGP1. These studies suggest that an aberrant oviductal environment may be an additive factor that contributes to endometriosis-associated infertility.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the distribution of estrogen receptors (ESR), progesterone receptors (Pgr), and the chaperone immunophilin FKBP52 in the eutopic endometrium in a baboon model of endometriosis during the window of receptivity to determine if their aberrant distribution contributes to reduced fecundity. Endometriosis was induced by inoculation of menstrual endometrium into the peritoneal cavity. Eutopic endometrium was collected at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months postinoculation. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Isolated endometrial stromal cells were cultured in the presence or absence of steroid hormones. In animals with endometriosis, ESR-1 (ER-alpha) decreased in endometrial stromal cells, while ESR-2 (ER-beta) was reduced in both glandular epithelial (GE) and stromal cells. Immunoreactive total Pgr was markedly diminished in the GE, which was confirmed by WB analysis. Furthermore, treatment of isolated stromal cells from baboons with endometriosis with hormones did not increase levels of PRA or PRB as in control baboons. FKBP52 was also reduced in the eutopic endometrium of baboons with endometriosis. Endometriosis results in an aberrant distribution of ESR-1, ESR-2, Pgr, and FKBP52 in the eutopic endometrium. The authors propose that a dysregulation in the paracrine signaling between the endometrial stromal and GE cells reduces the responsiveness of Pgr, creating an endometrial environment that is unsuitable for implantation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important for successful embryonic implantation, including establishing the placental vasculature, anchoring the placenta to the uterine wall, and promoting the immunoacceptance of the fetal allograph. To our knowledge, global crosstalk between the trophoblast and the decidua has not been elucidated to date, and the present study used a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and further treated with conditioned media from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with control conditioned media (CCM) from nondecidualized stromal cells for 0, 3, and 12 h. Total RNA was isolated and processed for analysis on whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide arrays containing 54,600 genes. We found that 1374 genes were significantly upregulated and that 3443 genes were significantly downregulated after 12 h of coincubation of stromal cells with TCM, compared to CCM. Among the most upregulated genes were the chemokines CXCL1 (GRO1) and IL8,CXCR4, and other genes involved in the immune response (CCL8 [SCYA8], pentraxin 3 (PTX3), IL6, and interferon-regulated and -related genes) as well as TNFAIP6 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6) and metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP10, and MMP14). Among the downregulated genes were growth factors, e.g., IGF1, FGF1, TGFB1, and angiopoietin-1, and genes involved in Wnt signaling (WNT4 and FZD). Real-time RT-PCR and ELISAs, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of human placental bed specimens, confirmed these data for representative genes of both up- and downregulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as angiogenic/static factors in decidualized endometrial stromal cells in response to trophoblast-secreted products. The data suggest that the trophoblast acts to alter the local immune environment of the decidua to facilitate the process of implantation and ensure an enriched cytokine/chemokine environment while limiting the mitotic activity of the stromal cells during the invasive phase of implantation.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chorionic gonadotropin (CG) plays an important role in establishing a receptive endometrium by directly modulating the function of both endometrial stromal and epithelial cells in the baboon. The focus of this study was to characterize changes in CG receptor (LHCGR, also known as CG-R) expression during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, particularly during decidualization. LHCGR was localized by using a peptide-specific antibody generated against the extracellular domain. Immunostaining was absent in any of the cell types during the proliferative phase of the cycle. In contrast, during the secretory phase, both luminal and glandular epithelial cells stained positively. Stromal staining was confined to the cells around spiral arteries (SAs) and in the basalis layer. This stromal staining pattern persisted at the implantation site between Days 18 and 25 of pregnancy and after CG infusion. However, as pregnancy progressed (Days 40 to 60), staining for LHCGR was dramatically decreased in the stromal cells. These data were confirmed by nonisotopic in situ hybridization. To confirm whether the loss of LHCGR was associated with a decidual response, stromal fibroblasts were decidualized in vitro, and cell lysates obtained after 3, 6, and 12 days of culture were analyzed by Western blotting. LHCGR protein decreased with the onset of decidualization in vitro, confirming the in vivo results. Addition of CG to decidualized cells resulted in the reinduction of LHCGR in the absence of dbcAMP. We propose that CG acting via its R on stromal cells modulates SA in preparation for pregnancy and trophoblast invasion. As pregnancy progresses, further modification of SA by migrating endovascular trophoblasts and subsequent decidualization results in the downregulation of LHCGR. This inhibition of LHCGR expression also coincides with the decrease of measurable CG in peripheral circulation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis, the presence of a functional endometrium outside of the uterine cavity, is associated with infertility. In our simulated model of pregnancy in baboons with experimental endometriosis, hCG infusion fails to induce expression of the immunoregulatory protein glycodelin. To test the hypothesis that the development of endometriosis is associated with an aberrant endometrial immunological environment, we examined the expression of a series of immunoregulatory genes in endometrium from baboons with and without endometriosis. Six months following intraperitoneal inoculation with menstrual endometrium, eutopic endometrium was surgically collected between Days 9 and 11 postovulation. Control endometrium was similarly collected from disease-free animals. Total RNA was extracted, and biotinylated cDNA probes were hybridized to the SuperArray GEArray Q series Th1/Th2/Th3 cDNA array, representing 96 genes. Gene expression levels were determined using ScanAlyze and GEArray Analyzer software. Seven genes were upregulated, including JUND, FOS, CCL11, NFKB1 and others, in the endometrium from baboons with endometriosis compared with the endometrium from disease-free animals; one gene, IL1R1, was downregulated. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed upregulation of FOS and CCL11 in endometriotic eutopic endometrium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed altered levels and distribution of FOS protein in the eutopic endometrium of baboons with induced endometriosis. These data suggest that in an induced model of endometriosis an aberrant eutopic immunological environment results in a decreased apoptotic potential and in rapid alterations in endometrial gene expression. We propose that the reduced fecundity associated with endometriosis has a multifold etiology in spontaneous and induced disease.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and IL-1beta induce changes in the endometrium that are associated with the establishment of pregnancy. We investigated the synergistic effect of these two embryonic signals on endometrial function using a baboon model of simulated pregnancy. Recombinant hCG (30 IU/d) was infused between d 6 and 10 post ovulation (PO) to mimic blastocyst transit. On the expected day of implantation (d 10 PO), IL-1beta (12 ng/d) or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 12 ng/d) was infused for an additional 5 d. Endometria were harvested on d 15 PO. Both hCG and hCG plus IL-1beta induced marked differences in the distribution of alpha-smooth muscle actin, proliferation marker Ki67, decidualization marker IGF-binding protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-1. The most marked effect of IL-1beta was the induction of IGF-binding protein-1 protein in stromal cells close to the apical surface, whereas cyclooxygenase-1 was down-regulated in the glandular epithelium. Protein arrays of uterine flushings showed significant suppression of death receptors, Fas and TNF receptor 1, in the hCG- with or without IL-1beta-treated groups, suggesting an inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and IL-4 were suppressed in treated animals compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in cytokine profile between hCG-treated and hCG- plus IL-1beta-treated baboons. This study confirms that in preparation for pregnancy, the primate endometrium undergoes both morphological and functional changes, which are modulated by hCG and IL-1beta, that lead to the inhibition of apoptosis and the development of an immunotolerant environment. These changes suggest that infusion of IL-1beta at the time of implantation into the nonpregnant baboon treated with hCG synergizes with hCG and mimics the early endometrial events associated with the presence of an embryo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine if differences exist between in vivo vs. in vitro OGP association with the ZP and to quantitate those differences. Ovarian oocytes were harvested 12.5 or 27 hr post-hCG from hyperstimulated hamsters or baboons, respectively. Hamster and baboon ovarian oocytes were incubated in vitro in media +/- homologous OGP (100 or 200 microg/100 microl) or in some studies with 100 microl oviductal fluid for 3, 6, or 24 hr at 37 degrees C. Some of the baboon ovarian oocytes were transferred immediately after harvesting to the ampulla of both oviducts using a tom cat catheter and retrieved after a 3 hr in situ incubation. Hamster oviductal oocytes were collected 3, 6, and 24 hr following ovulation. After incubation or oocyte retrieval from the oviduct, cumulus cells were removed, oocytes were washed extensively and binding of OGP to the ZP was examined by immunofluorescence. Fluorescence intensity was quantified using densitometric scanning of photographic negatives with the background of each negative as an internal control. In all studies, OGP association with the ZP was significantly greater in vivo than in vitro (P < 0.05). In vitro OGP association with the ZP did not significantly increase with incubation time or OGP concentration; however, a small nonsignificant increase in OGP association with the ZP in the oviduct was detected over time. Differences did not appear to be due to depletion of OGP from the in vitro incubation media, since Western blot analysis of the media showed that OGP was still present. Although OGP concentration in vivo is unknown, Western blots showed similar intensity comparing 100 microg of OGP media and oviductal fluid. Immunolocalization of OGP using laser confocal microscopy showed regional differences in OGP binding. The outer half of the zona pellucida had significantly more OGP bound than the inner half on oviductal oocytes. No regional differences were detected for in vitro incubated oocytes. In conclusion, OGP association with the ZP is greater in vivo vs. in vitro, suggesting that one must be cautious in designing and evaluating in vitro studies of OGP function.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a partially purified bovine oviductal glycoprotein (bOGP) on fertilization rates of bovine oocytes. The effect of albumin (control protein) or bOGP at 100 micrograms ml-1 during the 16-18 h fertilization period was evaluated in a standard IVF system using a sperm concentration between 0.5 and 0.125 x 10(6) spermatozoa ml-1. bOGP maintained a higher (P < 0.05) fertilization rate (62.0% versus 31.2%) at 0.125 x 10(6) spermatozoa ml-1 compared with the albumin control. The enhancement of fertilization by bOGP was blocked by the inclusion of a specific antibody to bOGP, whereas the antibody with albumin had no effect. A 2 h gamete preincubation step was subsequently included in the IVF procedure (0.125 x 10(6) spermatozoa ml-1) to determine whether the effect of bOGP was mediated through an interaction with the oocyte, the spermatozoon or both. When oocytes were preincubated with bOGP the fertilization rates were higher (P < 0.05) than with the albumin control (oocytes and spermatozoa exposed to albumin), whereas preincubation of spermatozoa with bOGP did not affect fertilization rates. There was no synergistic effect of preincubating oocytes and spermatozoa with bOGP. The increase in fertilization rate achieved by preincubating oocytes with bOGP was blocked with a specific antibody to bOGP. These results suggest that the increase in fertilization rates observed when bOGP is included during the 16-18 h fertilization period are primarily mediated through the interaction of bOGP with the oocyte since the same facilitatory effect was observed with a 2 h preincubation of oocytes before IVF. The ability to block these effects with a polyclonal antibody specifically generated against bOGP shows that this biological activity is due to bOGP. In summary, bOGP enhances fertilization in bovine oocytes whether it is included during preincubation or insemination and this appears to be due to a direct effect on the oocyte.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of antibodies generated against hamster oviductal glycoprotein (OGP) on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP) was evaluated.
Antibodies against a 17-amino-acid sequence of the OGP core protein (amino acids 52-68) and the denatured hamster OGP protein were generated, characterized, and tested in an in vitro sperm binding assay.
Sperm binding was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when oviductal oocytes were incubated for 2 hr with 4 or 8 mg/ml of immune IgG of both antibodies when compared with normal rabbit IgG. A fluorescence assay showed binding of both antibodies to the endogenous OGP associated with the ZP of ovulated hamster oocytes.
These results suggest that OGP may be a potential immunocontraceptive target because both antibodies significantly decreased sperm binding to the ZP of oviductal oocytes. Immunocontraception may be accomplished by attempting to generate active immunity to a recombinant OGP, to the region selected in this study (amino acids 52-68) or to some other region of the core protein.
No preview · Article · Dec 1997 · American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The baboon oviductal epithelium differentiates into a tall columnar epithelium consisting of ciliated and secretory cells during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in response to rising oestradiol levels. The apical tips of these secretory cells are filled with membrane-bound secretory granules. During the luteal phase when progesterone levels are elevated, the epithelium regresses and deciliation occurs. Analysis of secretory proteins obtained from explant culture media by SDS-PAGE followed by fluorography or Western Blots has revealed that the baboon oviduct synthesizes and secretes a high molecular weight glycoprotein during the follicular phase of the cycle. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the oviductal glycoprotein is localized to the secretory granules of epithelial secretory cells, is oviduct specific, and that following secretion the oviductal glycoprotein binds to the zona pellucida and periviteline space of ovulated oocytes and embryos within the oviduct. Similar proteins have been characterized in other mammalian species. cDNA data show that the complete coding sequence is 2228 bp for a protein of 623 amino acids. A Genbank search showed that baboon oviductal glycoprotein has high homology to other oviductal glycoprotein sequences at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Studies conducted to date probing the biological function of oviductal glycoprotein indicate that this protein plays a role in prefertilization reproductive events (sperm capacitation; sperm-zona binding; zona penetration). Additional experiments are needed to reveal a specific function and mechanism for this molecule. Key words : baboon/oviduct/oestrogen-dependent glycoprotein/secretory cell
Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · Human Reproduction Update
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to detect and characterize a secreted oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OGP) in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and to compare the characteristics of this OGP to those previously characterized in baboons and women. Oviducts were obtained from untreated ovariectomized rhesus and from ovariectomized rhesus either treated with estradiol (E2) for 14 days or treated sequentially with E2 for 14 days and then with E2 plus progesterone (P4) for an additional 14 days. Segments of oviducts were either fixed for morphological analysis, cultured for OGP synthesis and release, or frozen for RNA analysis. The proteins present in the culture media were separated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and OGP was detected on Western blots using polyclonal antibodies generated against the reduced form of baboon OGP or a 17-amino acid segment of the baboon core protein. Cross-reacting antigens were present in the 120-kDa region, identical to what was observed for baboon and human OGP. Indirect immunogold localization of OGP on thin sections demonstrated specific clustering of gold particles over the apical secretory granules of the secretory cells of the oviductal epithelium. A cDNA was generated using RT-PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and sequenced. The total transcript was 2237 nucleotides in length plus a poly(A) tail. The largest open reading frame was 624 amino acids, which would produce a protein of 69.3 kDa. The nucleotide sequence was more than 95% identical to the nucleotide sequences of baboon and human OGP. Northern blots revealed a single message at 2.4 kilobases (kb) in oviduct samples obtained from E2-treated rhesus. This message was absent in oviducts obtained from untreated ovariectomized and from sequential E2 plus P4-treated rhesus macaques. In summary, the rhesus oviduct synthesizes and secretes an OGP in the presence of E2 that is immunologically and structurally similar to the baboon and human OGP. The presence of a highly homologous glycoprotein in several primates suggests a similar function for OGP in the reproductive process.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1997 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the immunocytochemical localization of transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cats treated with oestradiol-17 beta and/or progesterone and in the endometrium and placenta of pregnant cats. Specific immunostaining was observed for all three antibodies. Moderate immunostaining for transforming growth factor alpha was observed in the epithelium of ovariectomized and oestrogen-treated cats. Dark epithelial staining was observed throughout pregnancy. The epithelial cells in progesterone-treated and peri-implantation animals contained dense deposits of reaction product, which were not reduced in intensity when immunoabsorbed antiserum was used. For epidermal growth factor, light-moderate epithelial staining was observed in ovariectomized and steroid-treated animals, and this increased in pregnant cats. Stromal staining for both the transforming and the epidermal growth factors was limited in steroid-treated animals and increased as pregnancy continued. Dark staining for epidermal growth factor receptor was observed in the epithelium and stroma in all the animals studied. The tips of surface epithelial convolutions in the non-implantation sites were always more darkly stained than in other regions of the surface epithelium. Staining in the placental trophoblast was limited to the syncytiotrophoblast for the two growth factors and the cytotrophoblast for the receptor during most of pregnancy and was absent late in pregnancy. The placental maternal giant cells contained specific immunoreactivity for all the immunogens from the middle of pregnancy to term. This study demonstrates that the two growth factors and the epidermal growth factor receptor are present in the endometrium and placenta of cats and suggests that these growth factors may play an autocrine/paracrine role during reproduction.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1997 · The Histochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the time of ovulation the lining epithelium of the mammalian oviduct consists of columnar ciliated and secretory cells. These mature cells are dependent on ovarian steroids in carnivores. Oestradiol induces differentiation of these cells and maintains their mature functional state, and progesterone induces dedifferentiation. The secretory cells synthesize and secrete an oestrogen-dependent high molecular weight glycoprotein. The cDNAs encoding oviductal glycoproteins from several species have been sequenced and show high similarity. The human cDNA hybridized with a single message on northern blots of total oviduct RNA obtained from oestradiol-treated cats (about 2.3 kb) and dogs (about 2.1 kb). This glycoprotein is the major nonserum protein present in the oviductal lumen at the time of ovulation, fertilization and early embryonic development. The glycoproteins associate with the zona pellucida of oviductal eggs in all species studied to date. Recent studies suggest that the bovine glycoprotein facilitates sperm capacitation and significantly increases the ability of bovine spermatozoa to fertilize bovine oocytes in vitro, that the hamster glycoprotein increases the sperm penetration rate of the zona pellucida by three times and that the human glycoprotein increases sperm binding to the zona pellucida by three times. All of the evidence for a biological function for this glycoprotein is derived from studies performed in several different species at reproductive stages before fertilization. The biological actions of this glycoprotein suggest a potential role for the glycoprotein in fertility control. Specifically, purified or recombinant glycoprotein may improve success in IVF procedures by enhancing binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida and improving fertilization rates. The glycoprotein may also be a potential immunocontraceptive target since antibodies generated against the oviductal glycoprotein may prevent fertilization by preventing binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Journal of reproduction and fertility. Supplement
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secretory cells of the oviductal epithelium secrete a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein (OGP). OGPs from different mammalian species show similar immunological characteristics, their cDNAs show high homologies, and they associate with the zona pellucida of oviductal oocytes in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of OGP obtained from different species on the binding of hamster sperm to hamster oocytes. Hamster oocytes were inseminated (30 min) in the presence or absence of homologous or heterologous OGPs, and sperm bound/oocyte were counted after removing loosely attached sperm. Ovarian oocytes had an average of 2.9 +/- 0.6 sperm bound/oocyte, whereas oviductal oocytes had 36.3 +/- 2.7. Hamster OGP (0.1 mg/ml) significantly increased sperm binding to ovarian oocytes twofold and had no effect on sperm bound/oviductal oocytes. Human OGP (0.5 mg/ml) significantly decreased sperm binding to ovarian oocytes (0.9 +/- 0.3 sperm bound/oocyte). This effect was dose dependent for oviductal oocytes and could be blocked by preincubating human OGP with a specific antibody to human OGP. The presence of baboon and cow OGP during the insemination of hamster oviductal oocytes also resulted in a significant decrease in sperm bound/oocyte, whereas the addition of hamster OGP to hamster oviductal oocytes had no effect. These results show that homologous OGP enhances sperm binding to the ZP, whereas heterologous OGP inhibits that effect. Thus, our results suggest that OGP plays a role in the species-specific characteristics of sperm/ZP interaction, and that one must use a homologous system (OGP and gametes from the same species) to study the biological effect of OGP.
No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · Molecular Reproduction and Development