[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vγ9Vδ2 cells are cytotoxic T cells that are able to recognize epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cells. Therefore, Vγ9Vδ2 cell-based adoptive transfer is an attractive therapy for EOC. However, the inefficient ex vivo expansion after specific stimulation of Vγ9Vδ2 cells from some patients and the relationships between Vγ9Vδ2 cells and clinical course of EOC are issues that remain to be clarified. Herein, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 60 EOC patients were stimulated with bromohydrin pyrophosphate (BrHPP) or zoledronate, which are specific agonists of Vγ9Vδ2 cells. The compounds differed in their efficacies to induce ex vivo Vγ9Vδ2 PBMC expansion, but 16/60 samples remained inefficiently expanded with both stimuli. Interestingly, the Vγ9Vδ2 cells in these low-responding PBMCs displayed before expansion (ex vivo PBMCs) an altered production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α, a decreased naive fraction and a reduced frequency. No evidence of an involvement of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells was observed. Importantly, our data also demonstrate that a Vγ9Vδ2 cell frequency of 0.35% or less in EOC PBMCs could be used to predict low responses to both BrHPP and zoledronate. Moreover, our data highlight that such a deficiency is not correlated with advanced EOC stages but is associated with more refractory states to platinum-based chemotherapy and is an independent predictor of shorter disease-free survival after treatment. These results are the first to suggest a potential contribution of Vγ9Vδ2 cells to the anti-tumor effects of chemotherapeutic agents and they strengthen interest in strategies that might increase Vγ9Vδ2 cells in cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells exert potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities, making them promising candidates for immunotherapy strategies. Recognition of tumor cells by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells requires engagement of the TCR and/or NK receptors. Recently, one of the novel NK receptors, the class I-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM), has been described to promote cytotoxic function of NK cells and to lead to IFN-γ secretion by CD8(+) T cells through interaction with its ligand, Necl-2. A better understanding of the role of CRTAM in Vγ9Vδ2 T cell functions is highly relevant to optimize innate-like T cell-based cancer immunotherapy. In this article, we report that CRTAM is transiently expressed on activated Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes following TCR engagement. However, CRTAM-Necl-2 interaction does not modify the cytotoxic function or IFN-γ secretion of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. The expression of CRTAM in activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells is quickly downregulated following interaction with Necl-2 on tumor cells. Of interest, CRTAM is concurrently acquired at the cell surface of Necl-2(+) tumor cells through Vγ9Vδ2 T cell membrane capture. Finally, we highlight that coculture experiments with tumor cells expressing Necl-2 result in significant cell death of CRTAM(+) Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. CRTAM-mediated cell death is dependent on an autophagic process, but not on apoptosis or necroptosis, as attested by the expression of characteristic markers and blocking experiments with specific inhibitors. On the basis of these findings, we propose that Necl-2 on tumor cells represents a new tumor counterattack mechanism and a potential target to improve efficiency of γδ T cell-based immunotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) usually spreads into the peritoneal cavity, thereby providing an opportunity for intraperitoneal adoptive immunotherapy with Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, a T cell subpopulation endowed with high lytic properties against tumor cells. However, previous studies have reported that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells fail to expand from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in one-third of patients with cancer. Here, from a cohort of 37 patients with EOC, a multiple correspondence analysis identified three populations, one of which was not suitable for Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell adoptive therapy. Interestingly, the ineligible patients were identified based on the frequency of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in their peripheral blood and the patients' age. The average time to tumor recurrence was also found to be significantly different between the three populations, suggesting that the innate immune response is involved in EOC prognosis. A dramatic decrease in the lytic properties of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells occurred following incubation with ascitic supernatant and was found to be associated with reduced perforin/granzyme degranulation. Prostaglandin E2, but not IL-6, IL-10, VEGF or TGF-β, showed immunosuppressive effects in Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Interestingly, our results emphasize that pretreating ovarian tumor cells with zoledronate partially reverses the immunosuppressive effects of ovarian cancer-associated ascites and restores a high level of lytic activity. These data sustain that optimal Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell adoptive immunotherapy previously requires counteracting the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. Altogether, our findings provide a rationale for clinically evaluating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell adoptive immunotherapy with intraperitoneal carcinomatosis presensitization by zoledronate in patients with EOC.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal carcinoma with hepatic metastases (mCRC) are cancers with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. New approaches are needed and adoptive immunotherapy with Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes represents an attractive strategy. Indeed, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells were shown to exhibit efficient lytic activity against various human tumor cell lines, and in vitro Vgamma9Vdelta2 T expansion protocol based on single phosphoantigen stimulation could be easily performed for healthy donors. However, a low proliferative response of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells was observed in about half of the cancer patients, leading to an important limitation in the development of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell-based immunotherapy. Here, for the first time in the context of cancer patients, Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell expansions were performed by co-culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) with autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pretreated with aminobisphosphonate zoledronate. For patients not responding to the conventional culture protocol, co-culture of PBMC with zoledronate-pretreated DCs induced strong cell expansion and allowed reaching a minimal rate of purity of 70% of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. The potent immunostimulatory activity of zoledronate-treated DCs was associated with higher amount of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) in the culture and was correlated with better ability to activate Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells as measured by IFN-gamma production. Moreover, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic level of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells against freshly autologous tumor cells isolated from patients could be significantly increased by pretreating the tumor cells with zoledronate. Thus, this method of generating Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells leads eligible for Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell adoptive immunotherapy the HCC and mCRC patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes can be activated by nonpeptidic antigens such as the mevalonate pathway-derived isopentenyl pyrophosphate or synthetic phosphoantigen such as bromohydrin pyrophosphate. They display a strong cytotoxic activity against several tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Little is known about the mechanisms underlying Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cell recognition of tumor cells, but there is strong evidence that activating NK receptors play a role in gammadelta T-cell cytotoxicity. In this study, we showed that the two NK receptors DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) and CD96 were expressed by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. The ligands Nectin-like-5 specific of both DNAM-1 and CD96, and also Nectin-2, an additional ligand of DNAM-1, were present on all HCC cell lines analyzed. Furthermore, we demonstrated by mAb-mediated masking experiments that cytotoxicity against HCC cells as well as IFN-gamma production in gammadelta T cells were dependent on DNAM-1. Our experiments indicated that Nectin-like-5 but not Nectin-2 was involved in DNAM-1-dependent gammadelta T-cell functions. We did not reveal a role for CD96 in the killing of HCC cells. Finally, we showed by combined mAb-mediated blockade that DNAM-1 and NKG2D could cooperate in the cell lysis of HCC.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes are reported to participate in the anti-tumor immune surveillance in human. They are known to recognize phosphoantigens and molecules expressed on cells undergoing neoplasic transformation. In this study, we investigated phenotype and anti-tumor cytotoxicity of ex vivo expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells in view of adoptive immunotherapy.
Experiments were performed with peripheral blood samples from eleven patients [six colorectal carcinoma (CRC), four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one sarcoma] and sixteen healthy donors.
Ex vivo expansion of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells could be achieved by a single dose of phosphoantigen, either bromohydrin pyrophosphate or zoledronate, and supported by exogenous IL-2. After 2 weeks, expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes acquired the effector memory phenotype CD45RA(-)CD45RO(high)CD27(-). They expressed NKG2D and CD161 and the proinflammatory CXCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors. Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells displayed a strong lytic activity toward a broad panel of tumor cell lines or primary cultures. Interestingly, HCC and CRC primary cells could be lysed by autologous Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells whereas autologous normal cells were not sensitive to the lysis. mAbs blocking assays demonstrated that TCR was the most important receptor involved in the lysis of tumor cells. However, NKG2D receptor could deliver a costimulatory signal enhancing the lysis of HCC and CRC tumors expressing MICA/B. Treatment of tumor cells by the mevalonate pathway inhibitor, zoledronate, enhanced the killing of both HCC and CRC. Expansion index of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells was in similar levels in healthy donors or in cancer patients and total expansion was suitable for adoptive immunotherapy.
These results provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes in HCC and CRC.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy