[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newborn rat distal cells express an apical Ca2+ channel activated by dihydropyridine drugs. Similarly, in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, nifedipine increased Ca2+i in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=4 μM) in fura-2-loaded cells. Response to nifedipine was abolished by EGTA, suggesting that it depends on extracellular calcium. Ca2+ channel antagonist isradipine and agonist BayK8644 increased Ca2+i indicating that this effect is related to the dihydropyridine group. Diltiazem (20 μM) and gadolinium (200 μM) decreased the nifedipine effect (62 and 43%, respectively). Lanthanum (100 μM) did not change the response. Valinomycin clamping of the membrane potential did not modify nifedipine-induced increment, indicating that it was unrelated to potassium fluxes. We performed whole cell clamp experiments in MDCK cells maintained at -50 mV with perfusion solution containing 10 mM CaCl2. Nifedipine (20 μM) induced an increase in current (1.2±0.3 nA), which was partially inhibited by Gd3+. No significant current was induced by nifedipine in the presence of 0.5 mM EGTA. To determine the effects of nifedipine on the membrane potential, we performed oxonol fluorescence experiments. The addition of nifedipine or Bay K8644 induced depolarization, highly dependent on external sodium. Nifedipine (20 μM) induced depolarization of 6.9±0.8 mV (n=21). EC50 to nifedipine was in the 10 μM range. We conclude that MDCK cells exhibit a dihydropyridine-activated cationic channel.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental exposures to cadmium (Cd) are a major cause of human toxicity. The kidney is the most sensitive organ; however, the natures of injuries and of adaptive responses have not been adequately investigated, particularly in response to environmental relevant Cd concentrations. In this study, rats received a daily ip injection of low CdCl₂ dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg body mass) and killed at 1, 3, and 5 days of intoxication. Functional, ultrastructural, and biochemical observations were used to evaluate Cd effects. We show that Cd at such subtoxic doses does not affect the tubular functions nor does it induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd accumulates within lysosomes of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells where it triggers cell proliferation and autophagy. By developing an immunohistochemical assay, a punctate staining of light chain 3-II is prominent in Cd-intoxicated kidneys, as compared with control. We provide the evidence of a direct upregulation of autophagy by Cd using a PCT cell line. Compared with the other heavy metals, Cd is the most powerful inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in PCT cells, in relation to the hypersensitivity of PCT cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that kidney cortex adapts to subtoxic Cd dose by activating autophagy, a housekeeping process that ensures the degradation of damaged proteins. Given that Cd is persistent within cytosol, it might damage proteins continuously and impair at long-term autophagy efficiency. We therefore propose the autophagy pathway as a new sensitive biomarker for renal injury even after exposure to subtoxic Cd doses.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most bacteria initiate host inflammatory responses through interactions with epithelial cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the bacterial cell wall is a major cause of septic shock in emergency care units and in the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. Kidney cells exposed to LPS undergo apoptotic changes, including cell volume decrease, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3- and membrane K+ conductance -activation. Whole-cell configuration was used to identify K+ channels in primary and immortalized culture of mice distal convoluted tubules. LPS exposure induced a 3 fold increase in intracellular cAMP concentration and the activation of an outwardly rectifying K+ conductance in both immortalized and primary culture of distal cells. This LPS-induced current exhibited KCNQ1 K+ channel characteristics, i.e. inhibition by quinidine, chromanol293B and low dose of HMR1556 (IC50<1 microM) and insensitive to TEA and charybdotoxin. The background-like biophysical properties of the current suggest that the KCNQ1 pore-forming subunit is associated with a KCNE2 or KCNE3 ancillary subunit. RT-PCR experiments confirmed the presence of KCNQ1 and KCNE3 mRNA transcripts in primary culture of distal segments. Activation of the KCNQ1/KCNE3 K+ current appeared to be an essential step in the LPS-induced apoptosis process since HMR1556 blocked the LPS-induced- cell volume decrease, -caspase-3 activation and -phosphatidylserine exposure.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that despite the presence of mRNA encoding CFTR, renal proximal cells do not exhibit cAMP-sensitive Cl(-) conductance (Rubera I, Tauc M, Bidet M, Poujeol C, Cuiller B, Watrin A, Touret N, Poujeol P. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 275: F651-F663, 1998). Nevertheless, in these cells, CFTR plays a crucial role in the control of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) activated Cl(-) currents during hypotonic shock. The aim of this study was to determine the role of CFTR in the regulation of apoptosis volume decrease (AVD) and the apoptosis phenomenon. For this purpose, renal cells were immortalized from primary cultures of proximal convoluted tubules from cftr(+/+) and cftr(-/-) mice. Apoptosis was induced by staurosporine (STS; 1 microM). Cell volume, Cl(-) conductance, caspase-3 activity, intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione content (GSH/GSSG) were monitored during AVD. In cftr(+/+) cells, AVD and caspase-3 activation were strongly impaired by conventional Cl(-) channel blockers and by a specific CFTR inhibitor (CFTR(inh)-172; 5 microM). STS induced activation of CFTR conductance within 15 min, which was progressively replaced by VSOR Cl(-) currents after 60 min of exposure. In parallel, STS induced an increase in ROS content in the time course of VSOR Cl(-) current activation. This increase was impaired by CFTR(inh)-172 and was not observed in cftr(-/-) cells. Furthermore, the intracellular GSH/GSSG content decreased during STS exposure in cftr(+/+) cells only. In conclusion, CFTR could play a key role in the cascade of events leading to apoptosis. This role probably involves control of the intracellular ROS balance by some CFTR-dependent modulation of GSH concentration.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · AJP Renal Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the role of CFTR during Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. For this purpose primary cultures and cell lines originated from proximal tubules (PCT) of wild-type cftr(+/+) and cftr(-/-) mice were used. In cftr(+/+) cells, the application of Cd(2+) (5 microM) stimulated within 8 min an ERK1/2-activated CFTR-like Cl(-) conductance sensitive to CFTR(inh)-172. Thereafter Cd(2+) induced an apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) within 6 h followed by caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. The early increase in CFTR conductance was followed by the activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) and TASK2 K(+) conductances. By contrast, cftr(-/-) cells exposed to Cd(2+) were unable to develop VSOR currents, caspase-3 activity, and AVD process and underwent necrosis. Moreover in cftr(+/+) cells, Cd(2+) enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induced a 50% decrease in total glutathione content (major ROS scavenger in PCT). ROS generation and glutathione decrease depended on the presence of CFTR, since they did not occur in the presence of CFTR(inh)-172 or in cftr(-/-) cells. Additionally, Cd(2+) exposure accelerates effluxes of fluorescent glutathione S-conjugate in cftr(+/+) cells. Our data suggest that CFTR could modulate ROS levels to ensure apoptosis during Cd(2+) exposure by modulating the intracellular content of glutathione.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated volume-activated taurine transport and ultrastructural swelling response of sea bass gill cells in culture, assuming that euryhaline fish may have developed particularly efficient mechanisms of salinity adaptation. In vivo, when sea basses were progressively transferred from seawater to freshwater, we noticed a decrease in blood osmotic pressure. When gill cells in culture were subjected to 30% hypotonic shock, we observed a five-fold stimulation of [(3)H]taurine efflux. This transport was reduced by various anion channel inhibitors with the following efficiency: 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) > niflumic acid > DIDS = diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid. With polarized gill cells in culture, the hypotonic shock produced a five-fold stimulation of apical taurine transport, whereas basolateral exit was 25 times higher. Experiments using ionomycin, thapsigargin, BAPTA-AM, or removal of extracellular calcium suggested that taurine transport was regulated by external calcium. The inhibitory effects of lanthanum and streptomycin support Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive Ca(2+) channels. Branchial cells also showed hypotonically activated anionic currents sensitive to DIDS and NPPB. Similar pharmacology and time course suggested the potential existence of a common pathway for osmosensitive taurine and Cl(-) efflux through volume-sensitive organic osmolyte and anion channels. A three-dimensional structure study revealed that respiratory gill cells began to swell only 15 s after hypoosmotic shock. Apical microridges showed membrane outfoldings: the cell surface became smoother with a progressive disappearance of ridges. Therefore, osmotic swelling may not actually induce membrane stretch per se, inasmuch as the microridges may provide a reserve of surface area. This work demonstrates mechanisms of functional and morphological plasticity of branchial cells during osmotic stress.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the adult rat, chronic cadmium intoxication induces nephropathy with Fanconi-like features. This result raises the question of whether intoxication of pregnant rats has any deleterious effects on renal function in their offspring. To test this hypothesis, we measured the renal function of 2- to 60-day-old postnatal offspring from female rats administered cadmium chloride by the oral route (0.5 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) throughout their entire gestation. Investigations of rat offspring from contaminated pregnant rats showed the presence of cadmium in the kidney at gestational day 20. After birth, the cadmium kidney concentration increased from postnatal day 2 to day 60 (PND2 to PND60), presumably because of 1) milk contamination and 2) neonatal liver cadmium content release. Although the renal parameters (glomerular filtration, U/P inulin, and urinary excretion rate) were not significantly affected until PND45, renal failure appeared at PND60, as demonstrated by a dramatic decrease of the glomerular filtration rate associated with increased excretion of the main ions. In parallel, an immunofluorescence study of tight-junction protein expression of PND60 offspring from contaminated rats showed a disorganization of the tight-junction proteins claudin-2 and claudin-5, specifically expressed in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively. In contrast, expression of a distal claudin protein, claudin-3, was not affected. In conclusion, in utero exposure of cadmium leads to toxic renal effects in adult offspring. These results suggest that contamination of pregnant rats is a serious and critical hazard for renal function of their offspring.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that K(+)-selective TASK2 channels and swelling-activated Cl(-) currents are involved in a regulatory volume decrease (RVD; Barriere H, Belfodil R, Rubera I, Tauc M, Lesage F, Poujeol C, Guy N, Barhanin J, Poujeol P. J Gen Physiol 122: 177-190, 2003; Belfodil R, Barriere H, Rubera I, Tauc M, Poujeol C, Bidet M, Poujeol P. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284: F812-F828, 2003). The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism responsible for the activation of TASK2 channels during RVD in proximal cell lines from mouse kidney. For this purpose, the patch-clamp whole-cell technique was used to test the effect of pH and the buffering capacity of external bath on Cl(-) and K(+) currents during hypotonic shock. In the presence of a high buffer concentration (30 mM HEPES), the cells did not undergo RVD and did not develop outward K(+) currents (TASK2). Interestingly, the hypotonic shock reduced the cytosolic pH (pH(i)) and increased the external pH (pH(e)) in wild-type but not in cftr (-/-) cells. The inhibitory effect of DIDS suggests that the acidification of pH(i) and the alkalinization of pH(e) induced by hypotonicity in wild-type cells could be due to an exit of HCO(3)(-). In conclusion, these results indicate that Cl(-) influx will be the driving force for HCO(3)(-) exit through the activation of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. This efflux of HCO(3)(-) then alkalinizes pH(e), which in turn activates TASK2 channels.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is the major degradative pathway of long-lived proteins and organelles that fulfils key functions in cell survival, tissue remodeling and tumor suppression. Consistently, alterations in autophagy have been involved in a growing list of pathologies including toxic injury, infections, neurodegeneration, myopathies and cancers. Although critical, the molecular mechanisms that control autophagy remain largely unknown. We have recently exploited the disruption of autophagy by environmental carcinogens as a powerful model to uncover the underlying signaling pathways. Our work published in Cancer Research revealed that the sustained activation of the MAPK ERK pathway by the carcinogen Lindane or the MEK1(+) oncogene alters autophagy selectively at the maturation step resulting in the accumulation of large defective autolysosomes. Consistent with our findings, a similar defect is observed with other common xenobiotics such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and biphenol A that specifically activate ERK. Conversely, Pentachlorophenol that activates both ERK and p38, fails to induce autophagic vacuolation. In addition, evidence is provided that abrogation of p38 by SB203580 is sufficient to interfere with the normal autophagic maturation step. Altogether, these findings underscore the critical role played by MAPK ERK and p38 in the tight control of the autophagy process at the maturation step.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) has emerged as a key tumor suppressor pathway. During this process, the cytosolic constituents are sequestered into autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to become autolysosomes where their contents are finally degraded. Although a reduced autophagy has been shown in human tumors or in response to oncogenes and carcinogens, the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) unknown. Here, we show that widely used carcinogen Lindane promotes vacuolation of Sertoli cells. By electron and immunofluorescent microscopy analyses, we showed that these structures are acid autolysosomes, containing cellular debris, and labeled by LC3, Rab7, and LAMP1, markers of autophagosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes, respectively. Such Lindane-induced vacuolation results from significant delay in autophagy degradation, in relation with a decline of the lysosomal activity of aryl sulfatase A. At molecular level, we show that this defect in autolysosomal maturation is independent of mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 inhibitions. Rather, the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is required for Lindane to disrupt the autophagic pathway. Most importantly, we provide the first evidence that sustained activation of ERK pathway is sufficient to commit cell to autophagic vacuolation. Taken together, these findings strongly support that the aberrant sustained activation of ERK by the carcinogen Lindane disrupts the maturation of autophagosomes into functional autolysosomes. Our findings therefore suggest the possibility that high constitutive ERK activity found in all cancers may provide a malignant advantage by impeding the tumor suppressive function of autophagy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect in the rat of chronic CdCl2 intoxication (500 microg Cd2+/kg, daily i.p. injection for 5 days) on renal function and the changes in tight junction proteins claudin-2, claudin-3, and claudin-5 present in rat kidney. We also studied the effect of coadministration of ZnCl2 (500 microg Zn2+/kg) during chronic CdCl2 intoxication. Our results indicate that 1) most of the filtered Cd2+ is reabsorbed within the kidney; 2) chronic Cd2+ intoxication can induce a change in renal handling of ions without altering glomerular filtration rate; 3) a delayed nephropathy, showing Fanconi-like features, appears more than 5 days after the end of CdCl2 exposure; 4) epithelial integrity is altered by chronic Cd2+ intoxication affecting the expression and localization of claudin tight junction proteins; and 5) cotreatment with Zn2+ protects against the renal toxic effects of Cd2+, preventing altered claudin expression and inhibiting apoptosis. In conclusion, these results show that Cd2+ toxicity and cellular toxic mechanisms are complex, probably affecting both membrane transporters and tight junction proteins. Finally, Zn2+ supplementation may provide a basis for future treatments.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In small airways, Clara cells are the main epithelial cell type and play an important physiological role in surfactant production, protection against environmental agents, regulation of inflammatory and immune responses in the respiratory system. Thus, Clara cells are involved in lung homeostasis and pathologies like asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) or cancers. To date, Clara cells implication in these pathological processes remains largely enigmatic. The engineering of a transgenic strain mouse allowing specific gene invalidation in Clara cells may be of interest to improve our knowledge about the genes involved in these diseases. By using the Cre/loxP strategy we report the engineering of a transgenic mouse strain with expression of Cre recombinase under the control of the Clara Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) promoter. Specific staining and immuno-histochemistry performed after breeding with reporter mice revealed that CCSP drives a functional Cre expression specifically in Clara cells. This mouse strain is a powerful tool for Cre-loxP-mediated conditional recombination in the lung and represents a new tool to study Clara cell physiology.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Transgenic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to characterize the relationship between zinc (Zn(2+)) and cadmium (Cd(2+)) and the toxic effects of Cd(2+) in immortalized renal proximal tubule cells RP1.
An RP1 cell line was developed from primary cultures of microdissected S1 and S2. Uptakes of (65)Zn and (109)Cd and competitive experiments with Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) were performed and kinetic parameters were determined. Oxygen consumption, metallothionein synthesis, and necrotic and apoptotic phenomena were studied.
Kinetic parameters indicate that (65)Zn (Km = 71.8 +/- 10.6 microM) and (109)Cd (Km = 23.3 +/- 2.0 microM) were both transported by a saturable carrier-mediated process. Competition between Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) uptake was reciprocal. Cd(2+) induced an increase in necrosis and apoptosis, and a decrease in oxygen consumption, depending on Cd(2+) concentrations. Concomitant addition of Zn(2+) (10 microM) reduced the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells and maintained oxygen consumption at control levels. Cd(2+) alone, or in the presence of Zn(2+), increased metallothionein levels, whereas Zn(2+) alone did not.
Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) probably share the same transporter in the proximal tubule. Cd(2+) caused necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Cd(2+) toxicity may occur through an effect on the mitochondrial electron transport chain and not on metallothionein synthesis. Zn(2+) protects against the renal cell toxicity of Cd(2+).
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Nephron Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and platinum (Pt) are a major environmental and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, these non-essential elements are toxic at very low doses and non-biodegradable with a very long biological half-life. Thus, exposure to heavy metals is potentially harmful. Because of its ability to reabsorb and accumulate divalent metals, the kidney is the first target organ of heavy metal toxicity. The extent of renal damage by heavy metals depends on the nature, the dose, route and duration of exposure. Both acute and chronic intoxication have been demonstrated to cause nephropathies, with various levels of severity ranging from tubular dysfunctions like acquired Fanconi syndrome to severe renal failure leading occasionally to death. Very varied pathways are involved in uptake of heavy metals by the epithelium, depending on the form (free or bound) of the metal and the segment of the nephron where reabsorption occurs (proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and terminal segments). In this review, we address the putative uptake pathways involved along the nephron, the mechanisms of intracellular sequestration and detoxification and the nephropathies caused by heavy metals. We also tackle the question of the possible therapeutic means of decreasing the toxic effect of heavy metals by increasing their urinary excretion without affecting the renal uptake of essential trace elements. We have chosen to focus mainly on Cd, Hg and Pb and on in vivo studies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Nephron Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effect in rats of acute CdCl(2) (5 microM) intoxication on renal function and characterizes the transport of Ca(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) in the proximal tubule (PT), loop of Henle (LH), and terminal segments of the nephron (DT) using whole kidney clearance and nephron microinjection techniques. Acute Cd(2+) injection resulted in renal losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), PO(4)(-2), and water, but the glomerular filtration rate remained stable. (45)Ca microinjections showed that Ca(2+) permeability in the DT was strongly inhibited by Cd(2+) (20 microM), Gd(3+) (100 microM), and La(3+) (1 mM), whereas nifedipine (20 microM) had no effect. (109)Cd and (65)Zn(2+) microinjections showed that each segment of nephron was permeable to these metals. In the PT, 95% of injected amounts of (109)Cd were taken up. (109)Cd fluxes were inhibited by Gd(3+) (90 microM), Co(2+) (100 microM), and Fe(2+) (100 microM) in all nephron segments. Bumetanide (50 microM) only inhibited (109)Cd fluxes in LH; Zn(2+) (50 and 500 microM) inhibited transport of (109)Cd in DT. In conclusion, these results indicate that 1) the renal effects of acute Cd(2+) intoxication are suggestive of proximal tubulopathy; 2) Cd(2+) inhibits Ca(2+) reabsorption possibly through the epithelial Ca(2+) channel in the DT, and this blockade could account for the hypercalciuria associated with Cd(2+) intoxication; 3) the PT is the major site of Cd(2+) reabsorption; 4) the paracellular pathway and DMT1 could be involved in Cd(2+) reabsorption along the LH; 5) DMT1 may be one of the major transporters of Cd(2+) in the DT; and 6) Zn(2+) is taken up along each part of the nephron and its transport in the terminal segments could occur via DMT1.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, neonatal positive calcium balance is required for adequate growth. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in this process mainly through its action on the distal nephron. We studied the effect of PTH on cytosolic calcium in distal segments from neonatal rat kidney. PTH elicited a concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium in neonatal distal nephron (EC(50)=0.5 nM) but not in proximal tubules. At similar PTH concentrations the response was higher in the neonatal than in the adult tubules. The response was associated with protein kinase C (PKC), since phorbol myristate acetate (100 nM) increased [Ca(2+)]i, and staurosporin, an inhibitor of PKC, decreased (10 nM) or suppressed (100 nM) the PTH effect. cAMP analogues did not change [Ca(2+)]i. The response was diminished in low external calcium (0.1 mM) and absent at zero calcium, indicating dependency on external calcium. Resting calcium decreased from 80+/-10.8 to 28.6+/-2.6 nM at zero [Ca(2+)]e. PTH and nifedipine increased cytosolic calcium in an additive fashion. We show for the first time that PTH increased cytosolic calcium in the distal nephron of neonatal kidney, in a concentration-dependent pattern and in association with PKC activation. Higher sensitivity of the neonatal tubule might facilitate absorption of this cation during the neonatal period, when growth requires a positive balance of calcium.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Pediatric Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work reports for the first time the construction of a transgenic mouse strain with specific expression of Cre recombinase in the kidney proximal tubule. A Cre/loxP strategy was developed using sglt2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in transgenic mice. The mouse sglt2 5' region consisting of the first exon, the first intron, and part of the second exon was cloned upstream of a nucleotide sequence encoding the Cre recombinase. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear injection, and tissue specificity of Cre expression was analyzed using reverse transcription-PCR. The iL1-sglt2-Cre mouse line scored positive for kidney transcription of Cre but not for the other tissues analyzed. Within the kidney, Cre transcripts were demonstrated to be restricted to the proximal tubule only. iL1-sglt2-Cre mice were bred with ROSA26-LacZ reporter mice that contained a loxP-flanked stop sequence upstream of the LacZ gene. X-gal staining and immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies (anti-megalin, anti-Tamm-Horsfall, anti-NaCl co-transporter, and anti-aquaporin 2) revealed that sglt2 drives Cre functional expression specifically in proximal tubules. The iL1-sglt2-Cre mouse therefore represents a powerful tool for Cre-LoxP-mediated conditional expression in the renal proximal tubule.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of the American Society of Nephrology