[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAPP is a multisubunit tethering complex implicated in multiple vesicle trafficking steps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and conserved throughout eukarya, including humans. Here we confirm the role of TRAPPC2L as a stable component of mammalian TRAPP and report the identification of four novel components of the complex: C4orf41, TTC-15, KIAA1012, and Bet3L. Two of the components, KIAA1012 and Bet3L, are mammalian homologues of Trs85p and Bet3p, respectively. The remaining two novel TRAPP components, C4orf41 and TTC-15, have no homologues in S. cerevisiae. With this work, human homologues of all the S. cerevisiae TRAPP proteins, with the exception of the Saccharomycotina-specific subunit Trs65p, have now been reported. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that the novel proteins are bona fide components of human TRAPP and implicate C4orf41 and TTC-15 (which we call TRAPPC11 and TRAPPC12, respectively) in ER-to-Golgi trafficking at a very early stage. We further present a binary interaction map for all known mammalian TRAPP components and evidence that TRAPP oligomerizes. Our data are consistent with the absence of a TRAPP I-equivalent complex in mammalian cells, suggesting that the fundamental unit of mammalian TRAPP is distinct from that characterized in S. cerevisiae.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nrf2 is the key transcription factor for cytoprotective gene programs. Nrf2 is normally maintained at very low concentrations by proteasomal degradation, through its interaction with the adapter protein Keap1 and the Cul3 E3 ligase. Increased Nrf2 concentration resulting from loss of function Keap1 mutations has been described in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer. Previous studies in breast cancer showed low levels of some Nrf2-regulated detoxification genes, but the mechanism has not been systematically examined. We found that half of the breast cancer cell lines examined have decreased concentration of Nrf2 compared with normal mammary epithelial cell lines, associated with variable but detectable levels in Keap1 levels, and consistently increased Cul3 mRNA and protein. Immunochemistry showed that 7 of 10 breast cancer specimens examined also have low Nrf2 levels and increased Cul3. Keap1 protein levels are variable. We found no C23Y mutation in Keap1 of any of the cell lines. Using siRNA, we silenced Cul3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and microarray analysis reveals the induction of GCL, NQO1, AKR1C1, UGDH, and TXN by at least 2-fold. The Nrf2-regulated ABCC1 drug transporter was also found to be increased. These Cul3-silenced MCF7 cells are highly resistant to oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2,) to the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene, and to both Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel. This high Cul3/low Nrf2 signature may be key to cellular sensitivity to both chemical carcinogeneic stimuli as well as to cytotoxicity of commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in established breast cancers.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the trafficking protein particle complex C2 protein (TRAPPC2), a mammalian ortholog of yeast Trs20p and a component of the trafficking protein particle (TRAPP) vesicle tethering complex, have been linked to the skeletal disorder spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SEDT). Intriguingly, the X-linked TRAPPC2 is just one of a complement of Trs20-related genes in humans. Here we characterize TRAPPC2L, a novel, highly conserved TRAPP-interacting protein related to TRAPPC2 and the uncharacterized yeast open reading frame YEL048c. TRAPPC2L and TRAPPC2 genes are found in pairs across species and show broad and overlapping expression, suggesting they are functionally distinct, a notion supported by yeast complementation studies and biochemical characterization. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of either TRAPPC2L or TRAPPC2 in HeLa cells leads to fragmentation of the Golgi, implicating both proteins in Golgi dynamics. Gradient fractionation of cellular membranes indicates that TRAPPC2L is found with a portion of cellular TRAPP on very low-density membranes whereas the remainder of TRAPP, but not TRAPPC2L, is found associated with Golgi markers. YEL048c displays genetic interactions with TRAPP II-encoding genes and the gene product co-fractionates with and interacts with yeast TRAPP II. Taken together these results indicate that TRAPPC2L and its yeast ortholog YEL048c are novel TRAPP-interacting proteins that may modulate the function of the TRAPP II complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very little is known concerning the toxicity of antimony, despite its commercial use as a flame retardant and medical use as a treatment for parasitic infections. Our previous studies show that antimony trioxide (Sb(2)O(3)) induces growth inhibition in patient-derived acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines, a disease in which a related metal, arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), is used clinically. However, signaling pathways initiated by Sb(2)O(3) treatment remain undefined. Here, we show that Sb(2)O(3) treatment of APL cells is associated with increased apoptosis as well as differentiation markers. Sb(2)O(3)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) correlated with increased apoptosis. In addition, when we decreased the buffering capacity of the cell by depleting glutathione, ROS production and apoptosis was enhanced. Arsenic-resistant APL cells with increased glutathione levels exhibited increased cross-resistance to Sb(2)O(3). Based on studies implicating c-jun kinase (JNK) in the mediation of the response to As(2)O(3), we investigated the role for JNK in Sb(2)O(3)-induced apoptosis. Sb(2)O(3) activates JNK and its downstream target, AP-1. In fibroblasts with a genetic deletion in SEK1, an upstream regulator of JNK, Sb(2)O(3)-induced growth inhibition as well as JNK activation was decreased. These data suggest roles for ROS and the SEK1/JNK pathway in the cytotoxicity associated with Sb(2)O(3) exposure.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and NF-E2 p45-related factor (NRF2) are two distinct transcription factors involved in the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Increasing evidence from several studies implies that AHR and NRF2 have direct links, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that Nrf2 gene transcription is directly modulated by AHR activation. DNA sequence analyses of the mouse Nrf2 promoter revealed one xenobiotic response element (XRE)-like element (XREL1) located at -712 and two additional XRE-like elements located at +755 (XREL2) and +850 (XREL3). Functional analysis using luciferase assay showed that XREL1, XREL2, and XREL3 are all inducible by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment, with XREL2 being the most potent. The functionality of these XRE-like elements was further confirmed by mutagenesis and gel shift experiments. Finally, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to show a direct binding of AHR to the Nrf2 promoter. Cells with silenced AHR expression using siRNA also lost NRF2 mRNA induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. These new data position NRF2-antioxidant response element downstream in the AHR-XRE pathway. Moreover, direct regulation of NRF2 by AHR contributes to couple phase I and II enzymes into an integrated system facilitating more effective xenobiotic and carcinogen detoxification.
Preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisperoxovanadium (bpV) compounds are irreversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors with a spectrum of activity distinct from that of vanadium salts. We studied the efficacy of a panel of bpVs as antineoplastic agents in vitro and in vivo with a view to investigating phosphatases as potential antineoplastic targets. The Cdc25A dual-specificity phosphatase is an oncoprotein required for progression through G(1)-S. It cooperates with oncogenic Ras to transform cells and is overexpressed in several cancers. Cdc25A is therefore an attractive candidate phosphatase target for the antineoplastic activity of bpV compounds. Cytotoxicity was examined in 28 cancer cell lines and in vivo efficacy was examined in a DA3 murine mammary carcinoma model. In vitro phosphatase assays were used to directly measure phosphatase inhibition, comparing Cdc25A to hVH2/DSP4, leukocyte antigen related/receptor type PTPF catalytic domain (LAR), Yersinia pestis phosphatase (YOPH), and T-cell PTPase/non-receptor type PTP2 (TCPTP). CDK2 activity and Rb phosphorylation were examined by immunocomplex kinase assays and Western blot. Cdc25A is at least 20-fold more sensitive to bpV inhibition than hVH2/DSP4, and 3- to 10- fold more sensitive than TCPTP and LAR. bpV inhibition of Cdc25A in cells leads to CDK2 inactivation and hypophosphorylation Rb, resulting in G1-S arrest and induction of p53-independent apoptosis. The most cytotoxic analogue, bpV[4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline-bisperoxo-oxo-vanadium (Me2Phen)], shows submicromolar IC50s against a panel of cell lines and inhibited tumor growth by 80% in mice. These results demonstrate that bpVs may have significant antineoplastic activity. In addition, they are in vitro and in vivo inhibitors of phosphatases including Cdc25A, suggesting that phosphatases may be appropriate targets for novel antineoplastic agents and that further development of these agents, targeting them to specific phosphatases such as CDC25A, may lead to novel agents with enhanced antineoplastic activity.
No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays a central role in IFN-mediated antiviral response. The ability of PKR mutants to transform rodent fibroblasts led to the hypothesis that PKR acts as a tumor suppressor. Recent studies have identified an expanding network of PKR signaling partners, including signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), p53, and IkappaB-kinase. Here we demonstrate that PKR is involved in the cellular response to genotoxic stress. PKR-deficient mouse-embryonic fibroblasts (PKR-/-) are hypersensitive to bulky adduct DNA damage caused by cisplatin, melphalan, and UV radiation but not to other DNA-damaging agents such as Adriamycin. PKR-deficient cells are highly susceptible to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. They demonstrate retarded cisplatin adduct removal kinetics. Most strikingly, PKR localizes to the nucleus rapidly upon cisplatin treatment. Restoration of PKR in PKR-/- cells results in resistance to cisplatin and enhanced cell capacity to remove cisplatin DNA adducts. We conclude that PKR has a function in the regulation of cellular response to bulky adduct-inducing agents, possibly by modulating DNA repair mechanisms.