Noriyuki Nimura

Kitasato University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (74)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported for the first time that D-aspartate (D-Asp) is biosynthesized by cultured mammalian cells such as pheochromocytoma (PC)12 cells and its subclone MPT1 (FEBS Lett. 434 (1998) 231, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 404 (2002) 92). We speculated that D-Asp levels in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the cultured cells are maintained in a dynamic state of homeostasis. To test this here, we utilized a novel and potent L-Glu transporter inhibitor, TFB-TBOA. This inhibitor proved to be a genuine nontransportable blocker of the transporter even during long periods of culture. Use of this inhibitor with MPT1 cells confirmed that D-Asp levels are in a dynamic steady state where it is constantly released into the extracellular space by a yet undefined mechanism as well as being constantly and intensively taken up by the cells via the L-Glu transporter. We estimated the rate with which D-Asp is constitutively released from MPT1 cells is approx. 3.8 pmol/h/1x10(5) cells.
    Article · Jun 2005 · Life Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In previous studies [FEBS Lett. 434 (1998) 231, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 404 (2002) 92], we demonstrated for the first time that D-aspartate (D-Asp) is synthesized in cultured mammalian cell lines, such as pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) and its subclone, MPT1. Our current focus is analysis of the dynamics of D-Asp homeostasis in these cells. In this communication, we show that L-glutamate (Glu) and L-Glu transporter substrates in the extracellular space regulate the homeostasis of endogenous D-Asp in MPT1 cells. D-Asp is apparently in dynamic homeostasis, whereby endogenous D-Asp is constantly released into the extracellular space by an undefined mechanism, and continuously and intensively taken up into cells by an L-Glu transporter. Under these conditions, L-Glu and its transporter substrates in the medium may competitively inhibit the uptake of D-Asp via the transporter, resulting in accumulation of the amino acid in the extracellular space. We additionally demonstrate that DL-TBOA, a well-established L-Glu transporter inhibitor, is taken up by the transporter during long time intervals, but not on a short time-scale.
    Article · May 2004 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • Noriyuki Nimura · Hiroko Itoh · Hiroshi Homma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has previously been pointed out that two different mechanisms exist in the reversed-phase (RP) HPLC of polypeptides, including proteins. We systematically investigated the separation of various peptides and proteins over a wide range of molecular weight using a nonporous octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica-gel column to provide a precise explanation for the separation mechanism of polypeptides, including proteins in RP-HPLC. As a result, we clarified that a critical point between a typical reversed-phase partition mode applicable to small peptides (molecular weight < 3000) and a characteristic elution mode applicable to proteins is in the vicinity of the molecular weight of 3500-4500. We also proposed a new concept, the "Transitional Desorption Mode", as a separation mechanism that can precisely explain the RP-LC separation of a wide range of polypeptides including proteins.
    Article · Sep 2003 · Analytical Sciences
  • Noriyuki Nimura · Takako Fujiwara · Aya Watanabe · [...] · Hiroshi Homma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel optically active thiol compound, N-(tert-butylthiocarbamoyl)-L-cysteine ethyl ester (BTCC), is synthesized as a chiral derivatization reagent. This compound and o-phthalaldehyde react with amino acid enantiomers to produce fluorescent diastereomers that are readily separable on a reverse-phase column by HPLC. Enantioseparation of acidic amino acids in particular is markedly improved using BTCC. In this study, the HPLC method for enantioseparation with the novel compound is applied to the aspartate (Asp) racemase assay. Derivatized D-Asp is eluted before the L-Asp derivative. Consequently, a small amount of D-Asp produced by the activity of racemase on a large quantity of L-Asp substrate may be quantified accurately, even at very low activity. Since the derivatization reaction proceeds rapidly at room temperature, a fully automated system is established for derivatization and sample injection. The automated method is practical and successfully applied to the archaeal Asp racemase assay. We presume that the procedure is additionally applicable to the enantioseparation of other amino acids, amino alcohols, and catecholamines.
    Article · May 2003 · Analytical Biochemistry
  • Masae Sekine · Hiroyuki Fukuda · Noriyuki Nimura · [...] · Hiroshi Homma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence and biological significance of the D-amino acids, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and N-methyl-L-aspartate (NMLA), have been recently studied in a variety of living organisms. In this study, we established a highly sensitive and reliable fluorometric HPLC system for determining levels of N-methyl-aspartate (NMA). The system comprises fluorescent derivatization of NMA with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) and two chromatographic steps: one that separates NMA from other primary amino acids in reverse-phase mode and another that enantioseparates NMDA and NMLA in a normal-phase mode. These two steps are linked by an automated column-switching system. A simple pretreatment step with o-phthalaldehyde to remove primary amino acids that can interfere with sensitivity is also described. The detection limit for NMDA is as low as 5fmol and the correlation between peak heights and concentrations between 5fmol and 1pmol is satisfactory (r=0.999). Following sample preparation and separation using the column-switching HPLC system, more than 80% of NMDA was recovered from rat liver homogenates spiked with NMDA. This method was employed to determine the levels of NMDA in tissues from bivalves and the results obtained were consistent with the values reported previously.
    Article · Dec 2002 · Analytical Biochemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous report (FEBS Lett. 434 (1998) 231), we demonstrated for the first time that D-aspartate (D-Asp) is synthesized in rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. This unique amino acid is believed to act as a novel messenger in mammalian cell regulation. However, the dynamics of D-Asp homeostasis in mammalian cells is yet to be elucidated. In this communication, we demonstrate that D-Asp is also synthesized in MPT1 cells (a subclone of PC12 cells) and that the D- and L-Asp levels in cells are regulated by cell density of the culture. Our data show that D-Asp levels increase, while in contrast, L-Asp levels decrease as a function of increased cell density. Conversely, in PC12 cells, which do not express the glutamate transporter involved in the incorporation of D- and L-Asp into cells, L-Asp levels decrease upon cell density increase while D-Asp concentrations remain almost unchanged. The results indicate that the biochemical behaviors of D- and L-Asp in mammalian cells are distinct and that the cellular levels of these stereoisomers appear to be under different control mechanisms.
    Article · Sep 2002 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • Zhiqun Long · Noriyuki Nimura · Minako Adachi · [...] · Hiroshi Homma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HPLC fluorometric methods have been used to analyze trace amounts of D-amino acids in biological samples. In this study, we established an expedient column-switching fluorometric HPLC system that would improve the analysis of D-amino acids, in particular D-aspartate (Asp). Our system consists of the fluorogenic derivatization of amino acids with NBD-F and two chromatographic steps, one that separates individual amino acids in reverse phase mode and another that separates the chiral forms of each amino acid in normal-phase mode. The two separation steps are linked through a trapping column by an automated column-switching system. In addition, sample preparation is simplified and improved, where trichloroacetic acid is used for deproteinization, and borate buffer, pH 9.5 is employed for the fluorescent derivatization. The detection limit for D-Asp in culturing medium is 5 nM. The resulting peak heights correlated well with concentrations that ranged from 12.5 to 250 nM for both D- and L-Asp. The present method was applied to determine D- and L-Asp levels in cell culturing medium, and within cells of MPT1 cell line. The detected cellular levels of D- and L-Asp agree with those detected by our previous method. In addition, this method was used to measure D- and L-Asp levels in rat blood samples, and the results are consistent with the reported values.
    Article · Oct 2001 · Journal of chromatography. B, Biomedical sciences and applications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free D-amino acid content in some archaea was investigated and D-forms of several amino acids were found in them. In the acidothermophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum, the proportion of D-aspartate (D-Asp) to total Asp was as high as 39.7%. Crude extracts of Thermoplasma acidophilum had Asp-specific racemase activity that was pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent. The relative insensitivity to a SH-modifying reagent distinguished this activity from those of the PLP-independent Asp racemases found in other hyperthermophilic archaea (Matsumoto, M., et al., J. Bacteriol. 181, 6560-6563 1999). Thus, high levels of d-Asp should be produced by a new type(s) of Asp-specific racemase in Thermoplasma acidophilum, although the function of d-Asp in this archaeon remains unknown
    Article · Feb 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • JA Lee · Zhiqun Long · Noriyuki Nimura · [...] · Hiroshi Homma
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large amounts of D-aspartate (D-Asp) are present in the rat adrenal and pituitary glands. D-Asp is thought to be synthesized in the mammalian body and also accumulates in various tissues following intraperitoneal or intravenous administration. This report examines the origins of D-Asp in the adrenal and pituitary glands. We administered D-Asp to male rats intraperitoneally and immunolocalized this exogenous D-Asp in adrenal and pituitary tissue, using an anti-D-Asp antiserum which was previously developed in our laboratory. D-Asp levels in the rat adrenal gland have been shown to undergo a transient increase at 3 weeks of age and to decrease rapidly thereafter. We found that in the adrenal gland, exogenous D-Asp administered intraperitoneally was incorporated into the same region of the adrenal cortex in which endogenous D-Asp was present. By Northern and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of glutamate (Glu) transporter, we also found that expression of the Glu transporter (GLAST), which has an affinity for D-Asp, transiently increased at 3 weeks of age and that localization patterns of the Glu transporter within the tissue were almost coincident with those of endogenous D-Asp. These observations suggest that D-Asp in the adrenal cortex of 3-week-old male rats is primarily acquired by uptake from the vascular system. We have previously shown that D-Asp is specifically localized in prolactin (PRL)-containing cells in the anterior lobe of the adult rat pituitary gland. Here we report that in the pituitary gland, exogenous D-Asp accumulated in endothelial cells, but not in PRL-containing cells. Northern and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of Glu transporter revealed that developmental changes in the Glu transporter (GLAST) expression did not correlate with tissue levels of D-Asp and that the Glu transporter was not expressed in PRL-containing cells. These observations suggest that, in contrast to the adrenal gland, most of the D-Asp in the pituitary gland of adult male rats originates inside the gland itself.
    Article · Feb 2001 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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    Full-text Article · Dec 2000 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: d-Aspartate (d-Asp) is found in prolactin (PRL)-containing cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland [Lee et al., Brain Res. 838, 193-199, 1999]. In order to determine whether d-Asp is actually produced by the anterior pituitary gland and whether it plays a physiological role in PRL function, a PRL-secreting clonal strain of rat pituitary tumor cells (GH(3)) was employed in this study. HPLC analysis and immunocytochemical staining detected the presence and synthesis of d-Asp in the cytoplasm of these cells. In addition, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated PRL secretion was increased in a dose-dependent fashion by d-Asp from these cells. These results suggest that the anterior pituitary gland synthesizes d-Asp and that d-Asp acts as a messenger in this gland.
    Article · Nov 2000 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
  • Noriyuki NIMURA · Hiroko ITOH
    Article · Dec 1999 · Analytical Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chiral recognition of N-(R)-1-(α-naphthyl)ethylamino carbonyl-(R or S)-valine and N-(S)-1-(α-naphthyl)ethylamino carbonyl-(R or S)-valine bonded aminopropyl silica gels in liquid chromatography was examined using computational chemical analysis. The chiral recognition centers of the model chiral molecules were analyzed using the Extended Hückel CACheTM program, and then the structures of hydrogen bond complexes with analytes were optimized by molecular mechanics calculations. The differences in final energy values indicated the elution order and enantiomer separation. The optimized density of chiral phases indicated that larger sized analytes may not slip into chiral recognition brush and form a one-to-one complex with the chiral recognition molecule used for analysis.
    Article · Oct 1996 · Analytica Chimica Acta
  • Takashi Arai · Noriyuki Nimura · Toshio Kinoshita
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When a chiral selector that is a pharmaceutical compound is added to the separation buffer in capillary electrophoresis, the enantioselectivity and the mobility of analytes which interact with that chiral selector may be altered. The changes in enantioselectivity and mobility of the analyte are a function of the strength of the affinity interaction, which depends on the structure of each. The macrocyclic antibiotic vancomycin contains a variety of functionalities that are known to be useful for enantioselective interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding groups, hydrophobic pockets, aromatic groups, amide linkages). Capillary electrophoresis with vancomycin as a buffer additive was used to separate the enantiomers of different compounds. In this study, the chiral separation of quinolonecarboxylic acids that exhibit marked antibacterial activity and of related compounds was achieved by capillary electrophoresis using vancomycin. The correlations between the separation parameters and analyte structures were investigated. The molecular interaction, which is based on the differences of structure, and the effect of experimental parameters on the enantioselective separation between the quinolonecarboxylic acids and vancomycin are discussed.
    Article · Jul 1996 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chiral selectivities of N-(tert.-butylaminocarbonyl)-(S)-valylaminopropylsilica gel and (R)-1-(α-naphthyl)-ethyl-aminocarbonyl-glycylaminopropylsilica gel were studied using model compounds. The differences in the final energy values of molecular interactions between the model chiral phase and derivatized (R)-and (S)-amino acids, calculated by molecular.
    Article · Apr 1996 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
  • Noriyuki Nimura · Hiroko Itoh
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation of proteins on chemically bonded silica gel columns is described. Efficiency of nonporous alkylsilyl bonded silica gel is compared with that of a macroporous gel that has been widely used for the purpose. A comparative study of the separation under conventional and fast separation conditions is also given. The fast separation technique on the nonporous reversed-phase column has the advantage of improving the recovery of late-eluting hydrophobic and large proteins, such as ovalbumin and apoferritin.
    Article · Mar 1996 · Molecular Biotechnology
  • Takashi Arai · Noriyuki Nimura · Toshio Kinoshita
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The direct chiral separation of ofloxacin by capillary affinity zone electrophoresis using serum albumins from different animal sources as chiral selector in the supporting electrolyte is described. In addition, the effects of displacers on the mobility and enantioselectivity of ofloxacin were studied. Firstly, the separation behaviour of the enantiomers of the ofloxacin (OFLX) and tryptophan (Trp) was compared. The influence of albumin types, including chemically modified bovine serum albumins (BSAs), and buffer types on the migration behaviour of enantiomers was investigated. The results showed that stereoselectivity of Trp is independent of the type of albumin used. However, chiral separation of OFLX depends on the biological species of albumin. Use of chemically modified BSA led to poorer resolution of enantiomers. Only with acetylated BSA could chiral separation of Trp be achieved. Using Good's buffer solutions (DIPSO and HEPES) as a supporting electrolyte affected the migration times of OFLX enantiomers. Finally, a variety of displacers were added to the buffer along with the protein, and the effects on separation behaviour were observed. The displacers included warfarin, ketoproten, diazepam, propranolol, benzoinphenylbutazone, digitoxin and octanoic acid. From the results obtained, it is concluded that capillary affinity zone electrophoresis using albumin as a chiral selector may allow screening of OFLX-displacer interactions.
    Article · Mar 1995 · Biomedical Chromatography
  • Noriyuki Nimura · Hiroko Itoh · Toshio Kinoshita
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct serum injection for drug determinations can be achieved on a diol-bonded silica gel as a restricted access packing. The diol-bonded phase, 3-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)propylsilylsilica, contains two different functions, a hydrophilic function at the tip of the single chemical bond and a hydrophobic function on the inside part of the bond to form a "binary-layered phase" on the support surface. Proteins, as large molecules, contact only the hydrophilic surface of the diol phase, and they are eluted at the solvent front based on size-exclusion chromatography. On the other hand, small molecules such as synthetic drugs are retained on the internal hydrophobic function and separate based on reversed-phase chromatography. Accordingly, the diol-bonded silica gel performs as a restricted access packing for direct serum injection for the determination of relatively hydrophobic drugs.
    Article · Feb 1995 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chiral recognition of a binuclear copper (II) complex of N-salicylidene-(R)-2-amino-1,2-bis(2-butoxy-5-tert.-butylphenetyl)-3-phenyl-1-propanol was analyzed by computational chemical calculation. The difference in the final energy calculated by molecular mechanics indicated the elution order of enantiomers on this chiral selective molecule.
    Article · Dec 1994 · Journal of liquid chromatography
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several physico-chemical properties of alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, polychlorobenzenes, polymethylphenols and polychlorophenols were determined using the Sony-Tektronix CAChe program and molecular orbital software packages, for the calculation of molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, extended Hückel, MOPAC, and MOPAC-BlogP. The calculations were used to examine the difference between the measured and predicted capacity ratios of isomers. The ionization potential energy calculated by MOPAC was the most suitable property with which to adjust the capacity ratios of polychlorobenzene, polymethylphenol, and polychlorophenol isomers.
    Article · Jun 1994 · The Analyst