[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationships between lymph node metastasis (LNM) and expression of CD31, D2-40 and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)-A and -C in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues of 72 patients were evaluated, which included 25 patients with thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH), 24 PTC patients without LNM, and 23 PTC patients with LNM. Three pathologists, who were blinded to the patient's clinical information, assessed the immunohistochemical staining results. The amount of expression was scored as high (>25% of cells stained) or low (0-25%).
A higher level of VEGF-A expression was observed in the PTC groups regardless of LNM when compared to the group with TNH (91.3%, 79.2%, 4.0%, respectively). VEGF-C expression in the PTC with LNM group was significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05). No difference in microvessel density (MVD) scores was observed using CD31 among the three groups. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) score using D2-40 was significantly higher in patients having PTC with LNM than the other groups (P<0.05).
VEGF-C and D2-40 were more highly expressed in patients having PTC with LNM than in patients having PTC without LNM or in those having TNH. Analysis of VEGF-C level and LVD using D2-40 may be helpful in the diagnosis of PTC and the evaluation of LNM potential in patients with PTC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To contrast clinical characteristics of secondary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (s-BPPV) with idiopathic BPPV (i-BPPV).
Case series with chart review.
A total of 718 patients whose medical records were reviewed had BPPV. Sixty-nine patients had existing inner ear diseases and thus were considered to have s-BPPV. We reviewed demographics, concurrent causative disorders, involved area, and response to particle repositioning maneuvers for these s-BPPV patients in comparison with i-BPPV subjects.
Female subjects with i-BPPV outnumbered male subjects by a ratio of 1.9:1, but there was no significant sex difference for s-BPPV patients. The diseases associated with s-BPPV were idiopathic sudden sensory hearing loss (ISSHL, 50.7%), Ménière's disease (MD, 28.9%) and unilateral vestibulopathy such as acute vestibular neuronitis and herpes zoster oticus (20.2%). The posterior canal was most commonly involved in both i-BPPV and s-BPPV. The horizontal canal was the second most common, followed by multi-canal involvement. However, MD-associated BPPV most commonly involved the lateral canal. The mean durations of treatment for i-BPPV and s-BPPV were 2.28 and 4.87 days, respectively. The mean duration of treatment was 6.28 days for ISSHL with BPPV, 5.07 days for BPPV with unilateral vestibulopathy, and 2.28 days for BPPV with MD.
The mean duration of treatment for BPPV with ISSHL or unilateral vestibulopathy was longer than for other groups. The different pathophysiologies of s-BPPV associated with different inner ear diseases may explain its diverse clinical features and courses.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OK-432 has been widely used to treat lymphangioma and ranula; however, there are few studies for its use in treatment of branchial cleft cyst (BCC). We conducted this study to evaluate the effectiveness of sclerotherapy using OK-432 in treatment of BCC.
Case series with planned data collection.
From 2004 to 2007, we treated 23 patients with BCC using OK-432 sclerotherapy. Of these 23 patients, 18 had unilocular cysts and five had multilocular cysts. The sizes of the BCCs were measured and compared before and after treatment.
Of the 23 cases, 14 (60.8%) showed complete regression; all of these were unilocular cysts. Of the remaining individuals with unilocular cysts, only one patient failed to show any response. This individual subsequently underwent surgical excision. A total of five patients with multilocular cysts showed no or partial response and subsequently underwent surgical excision. Minor adverse effects including fever and local pain were reported by 13 (56.5%) patients.
These results suggest that sclerotherapy using OK-432 is an effective and safe treatment modality for BCC, especially for unilocular cysts. Sclerosing of unilocular BCC with OK-432 should therefore be considered before surgical excision.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that subjects show a change of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) when phonating subjects hear their vocal pitch feedback shifted upward or downward. This study was performed to demonstrate whether vocal parameters [F0, intensity, jitter, shimmer, and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR)] in normal males respond to changes in frequency of pure tone masking.
Twenty healthy male subjects participated in this study. Subjects vocalized /a/ vowel sounds while listening to a pitch- shift pure tone through headphones (upward pitch-shift in succession: 1 kHz to 2 kHz and 1 kHz to 4 kHz at 50 dB or 80 dB, respectively, downward pitch-shift in succession: 1 kHz to 250 Hz and 1 kH to 500 Hz at 50 dB or 80 dB, respectively).
Vocal intensity, F0, was increased, whereas jitter was decreased as the pitch of pure tone was shifted upward. However, there was no correlation between shimmer and NHR with pitch-shift feedback for pure tones. Unlike vocal pitch- shift feedback in other studies, upward pitch-shift feedback of pure tones caused the vocal F0 and intensity to change in the same direction as pitch-shift.
The results of this study demonstrated that auditory kinesthetic feedback is affected by pitch-shift in pure tone.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Yonsei Medical Journal