[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins containing Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] clusters play essential functions in all three domains of life. We engineered the two histidine ligands to the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster in the hyperthermophilic archaeal Rieske-type ferredoxin from Sulfolobus solfataricus to modify types and spacing of ligands and successfully converted the metal and cluster type at the redox-active site with a minimal structural change to a native Rieske-type protein scaffold. Spectroscopic analyses unambiguously established a rubredoxin-type mononuclear Fe3+/2+ center at the engineered local metal-binding site (Zn2+ occupies the iron site depending on the expression conditions). These results show the importance of types and spacing of ligands in the in vivo cluster recognition/insertion/assembly in biological metallosulfur protein scaffolds. We suggest that early ligand substitution and displacement events at the local metal-binding site(s) might have primarily allowed the metal and cluster type conversion in ancestral redox protein modules, which greatly enhanced their capabilities of conducting a wide range of unique redox chemistry in biological electron transfer conduits, using a limited number of basic protein scaffolds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural and functional characterization of the entire protein complement (the proteome) of an organism can provide an infrastructure upon which questions about biological pathways and systems biology can be framed. The technology necessary to perform this proteome-level structural and functional characterization is under development in numerous structural genomics and functional genomics initiatives. Given the ubiquity of metal active sites in a proteome, it seems appropriate to ask whether comprehensive local structural characterization of metal sites within a proteome (metalloproteomics) is either a valid or obtainable goal. With a proteome-wide knowledge of the active-site structures of all metalloproteins, one could start to ask how metal insertion, cluster assembly and metalloprotein expression are affected by growth conditions or developmental status etc. High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HTXAS) is being developed as a technology for investigating the metalloproteome. In creating a pipeline from genome to metalloproteome, several bottlenecks to high-throughput determination of metal-site structures must be overcome. For example, automation of arraying small samples for XAS examination must be invented, automation of rapid data collection of multiple low-volume low-concentration samples must be developed, automation of data reduction and analysis must be perfected. Discussed here are the promises and the pitfalls of HTXAS development, including the results of initial feasibility experiments.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacteria isolated from organic mercury-contaminated sites have developed a system of two enzymes that allows them to efficiently convert both ionic and organic mercury compounds to the less toxic elemental mercury. Both enzymes are encoded on the mer operon and require sulfhydryl-bound substrates. The first enzyme is an organomercurial lyase (MerB), and the second enzyme is a mercuric ion reductase (MerA). MerB catalyzes the protonolysis of the carbon-mercury bond, resulting in the formation of a reduced carbon compound and inorganic ionic mercury. Of several mercury-containing MerB complexes that we attempted to prepare, the most stable was a complex consisting of the organomercurial lyase (MerB), a mercuric ion, and a molecule of the MerB inhibitor dithiothreitol (DTT). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the MerB/Hg/DTT complex have shown that the ligands to the mercuric ion in the complex consist of both sulfurs from the DTT molecule and one cysteine ligand, C96, from the protein. The stability of the MerB/Hg/DTT complex, even in the presence of a large excess of competing cysteine, has been demonstrated by NMR and dialysis. We used an enzyme buffering test to determine that the MerB/Hg/DTT complex acts as a substrate for the mercuric reductase MerA. The observed MerA activity is higher than the expected activity assuming free diffusion of the mercuric ion from MerB to MerA. This suggests that the mercuric ion can be transferred between the two enzymes by a direct transfer mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We heterologously overproduced a hyperthermostable archaeal low potential (E(m) = -62 mV) Rieske-type ferredoxin (ARF) from Sulfolobus solfataricus strain P-1 and its variants in Escherichia coli to examine the influence of ligand substitutions on the properties of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. While two cysteine ligand residues (Cys(42) and Cys(61)) are essential for the cluster assembly and/or stability, the contributions of the two histidine ligands to the cluster assembly in the archaeal Rieske-type ferredoxin appear to be inequivalent as indicated by much higher stability of the His(64) --> Cys variant (H64C) than the His(44) --> Cys variant (H44C). The x-ray absorption and resonance Raman spectra of the H64C variant firmly established the formation of a novel, oxidized [2Fe-2S] cluster with one histidine and three cysteine ligands in the archaeal Rieske-type protein moiety. Comparative resonance Raman features of the wild-type, natural abundance and uniformly (15)N-labeled ARF and its H64C variant showed significant mixing of the Fe-S and Fe-N stretching characters for an oxidized biological [2Fe-2S] cluster with partial histidine ligation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) from Haemophilus influenzae have been recorded in the presence of one or two equivalents of Zn(II) (i.e. [Zn_(DapE)] and [ZnZn(DapE)]). The Fourier transforms of the Zn EXAFS are dominated by a peak at ca. 2.0 A, which can be fit for both [Zn_(DapE)] and [ZnZn(DapE)], assuming ca. 5 (N,O) scatterers at 1.96 and 1.98 A, respectively. A second-shell feature at ca. 3.34 A appears in the [ZnZn(DapE)] EXAFS spectrum but is significantly diminished in [Zn_(DapE)]. These data show that DapE contains a dinuclear Zn(II) active site. Since no X-ray crystallographic data are available for any DapE enzyme, these data provide the first glimpse at the active site of DapE enzymes. In addition, the EXAFS data for DapE incubated with two competitive inhibitors, 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid and 5-mercaptopentanoic acid, are also presented.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Journal of the American Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diverse reactions catalyzed by the radical-SAM superfamily of enzymes are thought to proceed via a set of common mechanistic steps, key among which is the reductive cleavage of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) by a reduced [4Fe-4S] cluster to generate an intermediate deoxyadenosyl radical. A number of spectroscopic studies have provided evidence that SAM interacts directly with the [4Fe-4S] clusters in several of the radical-SAM enzymes; however, the molecular mechanism for the reductive cleavage has yet to be elucidated. Selenium X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Se-XAS) was used previously to provide evidence for a close interaction between the Se atom of selenomethionine (a cleavage product of Se-SAM) and an Fe atom of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of lysine-2,3-aminomutase (KAM). Here, we utilize the same approach to investigate the possibility of a similar interaction in pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) and biotin synthase (BioB), two additional members of the radical-SAM superfamily. The results show that the latter two enzymes do not exhibit the same Fe-Se interaction as was observed in KAM, indicating that the methionine product of reductive cleavage of SAM does not occupy a well-defined site close to the cluster in PFL-AE and BioB. These results are interpreted in terms of the differences among these enzymes in their use of SAM as either a cofactor or a substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus CzrA and Mycobacterium tuberculosis NmtR are homologous zinccobalt-responsive and nickelcobalt-responsive transcriptional repressors in vivo, respectively, and members of the ArsRSmtB superfamily of prokaryotic metal sensor proteins. We show here that Zn(II) is the most potent negative allosteric regulator of czr operatorpromoter binding in vitro with the trend Zn(II)>Co(II)Ni(II), whereas the opposite holds for the binding of NmtR to the nmt operatorpromoter, Ni(II)>Co(II)>Zn(II). Characterization of the metal coordination complexes of CzrA and NmtR by UVvisible and x-ray absorption spectroscopies reveals that metals that form four-coordinate tetrahedral complexes with CzrA [Zn(II) and Co(II)] are potent regulators of DNA binding, whereas metals that form five- or six-coordinate complexes with NmtR [Ni(II) and Co(II)] are the strongest allosteric regulators in this system. Strikingly, the Zn(II) coordination complexes of CzrA and NmtR cannot be distinguished from one another by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, with the best fit a His-3-carboxylate complex in both cases. Inspection of the primary structures of CzrA and NmtR, coupled with previous functional data, suggests that three conserved His and one Asp from the C-terminal alpha5 helix donate ligands to create a four-coordinate complex in both CzrA and NmtR, with NmtR uniquely capable of expanding its coordination number in the Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes by recruiting additional His ligands from a C-terminal extension of the alpha5 helix.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2003 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the reduction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH(3)-S-CoM) to methane. The enzyme contains as a prosthetic group the nickel porphinoid F(430) which in the active enzyme is in the EPR-detectable Ni(I) oxidation state. Crystal structures of several inactive Ni(II) forms of the enzyme but not of the active Ni(I) form have been reported. To obtain structural information on the active enzyme-substrate complex we have now acquired X-ray absorption spectra of active MCR in the presence of either CH(3)-S-CoM or the substrate analog coenzyme M (HS-CoM). For both MCR complexes the results are indicative of the presence of a five-coordinate Ni(I), the five ligands assigned as four nitrogen ligands from F(430) and one oxygen ligand. Analysis of the spectra did not require the presence of a sulfur ligand indicating that CH(3)-S-CoM and HS-CoM were not coordinated via their sulfur atom to nickel in detectable amounts. As a control, X-ray absorption spectra were evaluated of three enzymatically inactive MCR forms, MCR-silent, MCR-ox1-silent and MCR-ox1, in which the nickel is known to be six-coordinate. Comparison of the edge position of the X-ray absorption spectra revealed that the Ni(I) in the active enzyme is more reduced than the Ni in the two EPR-silent Ni(II) states. Surprisingly, the edge position of the EPR-active MCR-ox1 state was found to be the same as that of the two silent states indicating similar electron density on the nickel.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins containing Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] clusters play important roles in many biological electron transfer reactions. Typically, [2Fe-2S] clusters are not directly involved in the catalytic transformation of substrate, but rather supply electrons to the active site. We report herein X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data that directly demonstrate an average increase in the iron-histidine bond length of at least 0.1 A upon reduction of two distantly related Rieske-type clusters in archaeal Rieske ferredoxin from Sulfolobus solfataricus strain P-1 and bacterial anthranilate dioxygenases from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. This localized redox-dependent structural change may fine tune the protein-protein interaction (in the case of ARF) or the interdomain interaction (in AntDO) to facilitate rapid electron transfer between a lower potential Rieske-type cluster and its redox partners, thereby regulating overall oxygenase reactions in the cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese(II) activation of the methionyl aminopeptidases from Escherichia coli (EcMetAP-I) and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (PfMetAP-II) was investigated. Maximum catalytic activity for both enzymes was obtained with 1 equiv of Mn(II), and the dissociation constants (K(d)) for the first metal binding site were found to be 6 +/- 0.5 and 1 +/- 0.5 microM for EcMetAP-I and PfMetAP-II, respectively. These K(d) values were verified by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and found to be 3.0 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 microM for EcMetAP-I and PfMetAP-II, respectively. The hydrolysis of MGMM was measured in triplicate between 25 and 85 degrees C at eight substrate concentrations ranging from 2 to 20 mM for PfMetAP-II. Both specific activity and K(m) values increased with increasing temperature. An Arrhenius plot was constructed from the kcat values and was found to be linear over the temperature range 25-85 degrees C. The activation energy for the Mn(II)-loaded PfMetAP-II hydrolysis of MGMM was found to be 25.7 kJ/mol while the remaining thermodynamic parameters calculated at 25 degrees C are DeltaG+ = 50.1 kJ/mol, DeltaH+ = 23.2 kJ/mol, and DeltaS++ = -90.2 J x mol(-1) x K(-1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SdhC subunit of the archaeal respiratory complex II (succinate:quinone oxidoreductase) from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has a novel cysteine rich motif and is also related to archaeal and bacterial heterodisulfide reductase subunits. We overexpressed the sdhC gene heterologously in Escherichia coli and characterized the gene product in greater detail. Low temperature resonance Raman and x-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation collectively demonstrate the presence of a [2Fe-2S] cluster core with complete cysteinyl ligation (Center C) and an isolated zinc site in the recombinant SdhC. The [2Fe-2S]2+ cluster core is sensitive to dithionite, resulting in irreversible breakdown of the Fe-Fe interaction. EPR analysis confirmed that the novel Center C is an inherent redox center in the archaeal complex II, showing unique EPR signals in the succinate-reduced state. Distinct subunit and cofactor arrangements in the S. tokodaii respiratory complex II, as compared with those in mitochondrial and some mesophilic bacterial enzymes, indicate modular evolution of this ubiquitous electron entry site in the respiratory chains of aerobic organisms.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Co and Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of the methionyl aminopeptidase from Escherichia coli (EcMetAP) have been recorded in the presence of 1 and 2 equiv of either Co(II) or Fe(II) (i.e., [Co(II)_(EcMetAP)], [Co(II)Co(II)(EcMetAP)], [Fe(II)_(EcMetAP)], and [Fe(II)Fe(II)(EcMetAP)]). The Fourier transformed data of both [Co(II)_(EcMetAP)] and [Co(II)Co(II)(EcMetAP)] are dominated by a peak at ca. 2.05 A, which can be fit assuming 5 light atom (N,O) scatterers at 2.04 A. Attempts to include a Co-Co interaction (in the 2.4-4.0 A range) in the curve-fitting parameters were unsuccessful. Inclusion of multiple-scattering contributions from the outer-shell atoms of a histidine-imidazole ring resulted in reasonable Debye-Waller factors for these contributions and a slight reduction in the goodness-of-fit value (f '). These data suggest that a dinuclear Co(II) center does not exist in EcMetAP and that the first Co atom is located in the histidine-ligated side of the active site. The EXAFS data obtained for [Fe(II)_(EcMetAP)] and [Fe(II)Fe(II)(EcMetAP)] indicate that Fe(II) binds to EcMetAP in a similar site to Co(II). Since no X-ray crystallographic data are available for any Fe(II)-substituted EcMetAP enzyme, these data provide the first glimpse at the Fe(II) active site of MetAP enzymes. In addition, the EXAFS data for [Co(II)Co(II)(EcMetAP)] incubated with the antiangiogenesis drug fumagillin are also presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide through two stepwise oxygenation reactions involving N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine, an enzyme-bound intermediate. The N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine- and arginine-bound NOS ferriheme centers show distinct, high-spin electron paramagnetic resonance signals. Iron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the structure of the ferriheme site in the N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine-bound full-length neuronal NOS in the presence of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin. Iron XAS shows that the high-spin ferriheme sites in the N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine- and arginine-bound forms are strikingly similar, both being coordinated by the heme and an axial thiolate ligand, with an Fe-S distance of ca. 2.29 A. Cu(2+) inhibition slightly affects the spin-state equilibrium, but causes no XAS-detectable changes in the immediate ferriheme coordination environment of neuronal NOS. The structure and ligand geometry of the high-spin ferriheme in arginine-bound neuronal NOS are essentially identical to those of the N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine-bound form and only slightly affected by the divalent cation inhibitor of constitutive NOS.
No preview · Article · Sep 2001 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus pI258 CadC is an extrachromosomally encoded metalloregulatory repressor protein from the ArsR superfamily which negatively regulates the expression of the cad operon in a metal-dependent fashion. The metalloregulatory hypothesis holds that direct binding of thiophilic divalent cations including Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by CadC allosterically regulates the DNA binding activity of CadC to the cad operator/promoter (O/P). This report presents a detailed characterization of the metal binding and DNA binding properties of wild-type CadC. The results of analytical ultracentrifugation experiments suggest that both apo- and Cd(1)-CadC are stable or weakly dissociable homodimers characterized by a K(dimer) = 3.0 x 10(6) M(-1) (pH 7.0, 0.20 M NaCl, 25.0 degrees C) with little detectable effect of Cd(II) on the dimerization equilibrium. As determined by optical spectroscopy, the stoichiometry of Cd(II) and Pb(II) binding is approximately 0.7-0.8 mol/mol of wild-type CadC monomer. Chelator (EDTA) competition binding isotherms reveal that Cd(II) binds very tightly, with K(Cd) = 4.3 (+/-1.8) x 10(12) M(-1). The results of UV-Vis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Cd(1) complex are consistent with a tetrathiolate (S(4)) complex formed by four cysteine ligands. The (113)Cd NMR spectrum reveals a single resonance of delta = 622 ppm, consistent with an S(3)(N,O) or unusual upfield-shifted S(4) complex. The Pb(II) complex reveals two prominent absorption bands at 350 nm (epsilon = 4000 M(-1) cm(-1)) and 250 nm (epsilon = 41 000 M(-1) cm(-1)), spectral properties consistent with three or four thiolate ligands to the Pb(II) ion. The change in the anisotropy of a fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotide containing the cad O/P upon binding CadC and analyzed using a dissociable CadC dimer binding model reveals that apo-CadC forms a high-affinity complex [K(a) = (1.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(9) M(-1); pH 7.0, 0.40 M NaCl, 25 degrees C], the affinity of which is reduced approximately 300-fold upon the binding of a single molar equivalent of Cd(II) or Pb(II). The implications of these findings on the mechanism of metalloregulation are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NosL, one of the accessory proteins of the nos (nitrous oxide reductase) gene cluster, has been heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized. NosL is a monomeric protein of 18,540 MW that specifically and stoichiometrically binds Cu(I). The copper ion in NosL is ligated by a Cys residue, and one Met and one His are thought to serve as the other ligands. While it is possible to oxidize Cu(I)-NosL with ferricyanide, the Cu(II) ion thus formed appears to dissociate from the protein. The function of Cu(I)NosL is not yet known, but the data indicate that NosL does not act as an electron transfer partner to nitrous oxide reductase. NosL is encoded on the same transcript as three other gene products (NosD, NosF, and NosY). These have been shown to be required for assembly of the active site in nitrous oxide reductase, which is thought to be a copper cluster. Accordingly, it is possible that NosL is a copper chaperone involved in metallocenter assembly.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2001 · JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (KAM) belongs to a class of enzymes that use FeS clusters and S-adenosyl-L-methionine to initiate radical-dependent chemistry. Selenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis of KAM poised at various stages of catalysis, in the presence of selenomethionine or Se-adenosyl-L-selenomethionine, reveals that the cofactor is cleaved only in the presence of dithionite and the substrate analogue trans-4,5-dehydrolysine. A new Fourier transform peak at 2.7 A, assigned as a Se-Fe interaction, appears concomitant with this cleavage. This is the first demonstration of a direct interaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, or its cleavage products, with the FeS cluster in this class of enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutants of the bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 were selected to grow on benzoate without the BenM transcriptional activator. In the wild type, BenM responds
to benzoate andcis,cis-muconate to activate expression of thebenABCDE operon, which is involved in benzoate catabolism. This operon encodes enzymes that convert benzoate to catechol, a compound
subsequently degraded by cat gene-encoded enzymes. In this report, four spontaneous mutants were found to carrycatB mutations that enabled BenM-independent growth on benzoate. catB encodes muconate cycloisomerase, an enzyme required for benzoate catabolism. Its substrate,cis,cis-muconate, is enzymatically produced from catechol by the catA-encoded catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Muconate cycloisomerase was purified to homogeneity from the wild type and the catB mutants. Each purified enzyme was active, although there were differences in the catalytic properties of the wild type and
variant muconate cycloisomerases. Strains with a chromosomalbenA::lacZ transcriptional fusion were constructed and used to investigate how catB mutations affect growth on benzoate. All of the catB mutations increased cis,cis-muconate-activatedben gene expression in strains lacking BenM. A model is presented in which the catB mutations reduce muconate cycloisomerase activity during growth on benzoate, thereby increasing intracellular cis, cis-muconate concentrations. This, in turn, may allow CatM, an activator similar to BenM in sequence and function, to activate
ben gene transcription. CatM normally responds to cis,cis-muconate to activate cat gene expression. Consistent with this model, muconate cylcoisomerase specific activities in cell extracts of benzoate-grown
catB mutants were low relative to that of the wild type. Moreover, the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities of the mutants were
elevated, which may result from CatM responding to the altered intracellular levels ofcis,cis-muconate and increasingcatA expression. Collectively, these results support the important role of metabolite concentrations in controlling benzoate degradation
via a complex transcriptional regulatory circuit.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta-class carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) was structurally and kinetically characterized. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments show that Cab is a tetramer. Circular dichroism studies of Cab and the Spinacia oleracea (spinach) beta-class carbonic anhydrase indicate that the secondary structure of the beta-class enzymes is predominantly alpha-helical, unlike that of the alpha- or gamma-class enzymes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure results indicate the active zinc site of Cab is coordinated by two sulfur and two O/N ligands, with the possibility that one of the O/N ligands is derived from histidine and the other from water. Both the steady-state parameters k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) for CO(2) hydration are pH dependent. The steady-state parameter k(cat) is buffer-dependent in a saturable manner at both pH 8.5 and 6.5, and the analysis suggested a ping-pong mechanism in which buffer is the second substrate. At saturating buffer conditions and pH 8.5, k(cat) is 2.1-fold higher in H(2)O than in D(2)O, consistent with an intramolecular proton transfer step being rate contributing. The steady-state parameter k(cat)/K(m) is not dependent on buffer, and no solvent hydrogen isotope effect was observed. The results suggest a zinc hydroxide mechanism for Cab. The overall results indicate that prokaryotic beta-class carbonic anhydrases have fundamental characteristics similar to the eukaryotic beta-class enzymes and firmly establish that the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-classes are convergently evolved enzymes that, although structurally distinct, are functionally equivalent.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxin fromSulfolobus sp. strain 7 contains one [3Fe-4S] cluster (cluster I), one [4Fe-4S] cluster (cluster II), and one isolated zinc center.
Oxidative degradation of this ferredoxin led to the formation of a stable intermediate with 1 zinc and ∼6 iron atoms. The
metal centers of this intermediate were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), low temperature resonance Raman,
x-ray absorption, and1H NMR spectroscopies. The spectroscopic data suggest that (i) cluster II was selectively converted to a cubane [3Fe-4S]1+ cluster in the intermediate, without forming a stable radical species, and that (ii) the local metric environments of cluster
I and the isolated zinc site did not change significantly in the intermediate. It is concluded that the initial step of oxidative
degradation of the archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxin is selective conversion of cluster II, generating a novel intermediate
containing two [3Fe-4S] clusters and an isolated zinc center. At this stage, significant structural rearrangement of the protein
does not occur. We propose a new scheme for oxidative degradation of dicluster ferredoxins in which each cluster converts
in a stepwise manner, prior to apoprotein formation, and discuss its structural and evolutionary implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Synechococcus PCC7942 SmtB is a zinc-responsive transcriptional repressor and a member of the ArsR superfamily of prokaryotic metalloregulatory transcription factors. The mechanism of negative regulation by Zn(II) and other metals as well as the coordination chemistry (stoichiometry, affinity, and specificity) of SmtB is poorly understood. In contrast to previous results [Kar, S. R., Adams, A. C., Lebowitz, J., Taylor, K. B., and Hall, L. M. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 15343-15348], we find that fully reduced SmtB binds 1 mol equiv of Zn(II) with a very high affinity, K(Zn) in excess of 10(11) M(-1) (pH 7.4, 0.15 M KCl, 22 degrees C). Optical spectroscopic experiments reveal that SmtB binds 1 mol equiv of Co(II) in a tetrahedral or distorted tetrahedral environment with one or two cysteine thiolate ligands in the first coordination shell. Zn(II) and Co(II) EXAFS studies are consistent with the optical spectroscopic data, and further suggest the presence of a mixture of carboxylate and imidazole-containing ligands. K(Co) was determined to be 1.7 (+/-0.1) x 10(9) M(-1) in a chelator (EGTA) competition assay; 1 equiv of Zn(II) results in complete displacement of the bound Co(II). SmtB also binds 1 mol equiv of Ni(II), which, when formed at low Ni(II):SmtB molar ratios, adopts a non-native, six-coordinate complex characterized by at least two histidine and no thiolate ligands. The hierarchy of metal binding affinities is Zn(II) > Co(II) > Ni(II).