N Zarjevski

University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland

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Publications (8)36.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration to normal rats for 7 days produced a sustained, threefold increase in food intake, resulting in a body weight gain of more than 40 g. Basal plasma insulin and triglyceride levels were increased in NPY-treated compared to vehicle-infused rats by about four- and two-fold, respectively. The glucose utilization index of white adipose tissue, measured by the labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was four times higher in NPY-treated rats compared to controls. This change was accompanied by an increase in the insulin responsive glucose transporter protein (GLUT 4). In marked contrast, muscle glucose utilization was decreased in NPY-treated compared to vehicle-infused animals. This change was accompanied by an increase in triglyceride content. When NPY-treated rats were prevented from overeating, there was no decrease in muscle glucose uptake, nor was there an increase in muscle triglyceride content. This suggests that muscle insulin resistance of ad libitum-fed NPY-treated rats is due to a glucose-fatty acid (Randle) cycle. When intracerebroventricular NPY administration was stopped and rats kept without any treatment for 7 additional days, all the abnormalities brought about by the neuropeptide were normalized. A tonic central effect of NPY is therefore needed to elicit and maintain most of the hormonal and metabolic abnormalities observed in the present study. Such abnormalities are analogous to those seen in the dynamic phase of obesity syndromes in which high hypothalamic NPY levels have been reported.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Diabetologia
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    ABSTRACT: Given that several genetically obese rodents characterized by hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance have increased hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA and peptide content, the impact of NPY administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for 7 days to normal, awake rats was investigated. NPY produced marked hyperphagia, increased body weight gain, increased basal insulinemia, and, more importantly, a much greater insulin response to meal feeding than that of saline-infused controls. NPY administration also resulted in a pronounced increase in the in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by adipose tissue but in a marked decrease in uptake by eight different muscle types. Increased insulin responsiveness of the glucose transport process by adipose tissue was accompanied by increases in both GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the decreased insulin responsiveness of glucose uptake in muscles from NPY-administered rats was not related to GLUT4 expression. We conclude that i.c.v. NPY administration to normal rats produces a hormonal-metabolic situation that is similar to that reported in the dynamic phase of the genetic obesity of the fa/fa strain. Thus, NPY could be of primary importance in the establishment of obesity syndromes with incipient insulin resistance.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1994 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of neuropeptide-Y (NPY; 10 micrograms/day) was performed in normal female rats to investigate its hormonal and metabolic consequences. Intracerebroventricular NPY produced hyperphagia, increased basal insulinemia, as well as liver and adipose tissue lipogenic activity. It also increased basal morning corticosteronemia. When NPY-induced hyperphagia was prevented by pair-feeding, the icv NPY treatment resulted in the same increases in basal insulinemia and corticosteronemia, and liver and white adipose tissue lipogenesis was still higher than that in respective controls. Under the ad libitum and pair-feeding conditions, icv NPY stimulated glucose uptake as well as total lipoprotein lipase activity in white adipose tissue; it resulted in an increase total activity of hepatic and white adipose tissue acetyl coenzyme-A-carboxylase. As all hormonal and metabolic changes elicited by icv NPY remained present (at the same or to a lesser extent depending upon the parameter considered) when hyperphagia was prevented by pair-feeding, it was, thus, shown that icv NPY per se induces peripheral hormonal and metabolic alterations via efferent routes, which remain to be determined. The effects of icv NPY reported in this study are similar to the defects observed in the early phase of genetic obesity in rodents, the hypothalamus of which has increased NPY levels. NPY could, thus, be of relevance in the occurrence of genetically induced obesity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1993 · Endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 1993 · International Journal of Obesity
  • N Zarjevski · P Doyle · B Jeanrenaud
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    ABSTRACT: It is not known whether hyperinsulinemia of the genetically obese fa/fa rat occurs before insulin resistance and abnormal glucose handling or vice versa. Therefore, it was decided to study, as a function of age, the evolution of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake measuring the in vitro uptake of its analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), by diaphragm. The expression of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) mRNA and protein were also investigated in muscles. The maximum increase over baseline in 2DG uptake in response to increasing insulin concentrations in the medium was upward shifted in diaphragm from preweaned 21-day-old preobese rats relative to that in lean controls (increased responsiveness). By 31 days of age the maximum increase over baseline diaphragm 2DG uptake in response to insulin was similar in young lean and obese rats. At 70 days of age, the 2DG uptake muscle dose response to insulin was significantly downward shifted, i.e. clearly insulin resistant (decreased responsiveness). Muscle (diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus) expression of GLUT 4 mRNA and protein revealed no intergroup difference at any of the ages studied. Hyperinsulinemia was moderate in preobese animals and progressively increased with the duration of the obesity syndrome. Based on the observation that diaphragm glucose uptake of 21-day-old preobese rats was overresponsive to insulin, normoinsulin responsive at 31 days, and insulin resistant at a later time, it is concluded that muscle insulin resistance is not a primary etiological defect, but must be secondary to other pathological alterations, the nature of which remains to be elucidated.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Endocrinology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 1992 · Journées annuelles de diabétologie de l'Hôtel-Dieu
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose is transported into the cell by facilitated diffusion via a family of structurally related proteins, whose expression is tissue-specific. One of these transporters, GLUT4, is expressed specifically in insulin-sensitive tissues. A possible change in the synthesis and/or in the amount of GLUT4 has therefore been studied in situations associated with an increase or a decrease in the effect of insulin on glucose transport. Chronic hyperinsulinemia in rats produces a hyper-response of white adipose tissue to insulin and resistance in skeletal muscle. The hyper-response of white adipose tissue is associated with an increase in GLUT4 mRNA and protein. In contrast, in skeletal muscle, a decrease in GLUT4 mRNA and a decrease (tibialis) or no change (diaphragm) in GLUT4 protein are measured, suggesting a divergent regulation by insulin of glucose transport and transporters in the 2 tissues. In rodents, brown adipose tissue is very sensitive to insulin. The response of this tissue to insulin is decreased in obese insulin-resistant fa/fa rats. Treatment with a beta-adrenergic agonist increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 protein and mRNA. The data suggest that transporter synthesis can be modulated in vivo by insulin (muscle, white adipose tissue) or by catecholamines (brown adipose tissue).
    No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Biochimie
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    ABSTRACT: To mimick a state of hyperinsulinemia, normal rats were infused with insulin for 4 days via minipumps, and compared to saline infused rats. At the end of the experimental period, the abundance of mRNA was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased in muscles of "insulinized" rats compared to controls. These findings were accompanied, in all tissues considered, except the diaphragm, by parallel changes in the amount of the glucose transporter protein and by parallel changes in the in vivo glucose utilization index. Hyperinsulinemia is thus a driving force in stimulating adipose tissue metabolic activity, while bringing about incipient muscle insulin resistance.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1991 · Endocrinology