[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH) is a serious event with grave consequences. Delayed ischemic neurological deficits caused by cerebral arterial vasospasm contribute significantly to death and disability. Biomarkers may reflect brain injury and provide an early warning of impending neurological decline and stroke from ASAH-induced vasospasm. Alpha-II spectrin is a cytoskeletal protein whose breakdown products are candidate surrogate markers of injury magnitude, treatment efficacy, and outcome. In addition, all spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) can provide information on the proteolytic mechanisms of injury.
Twenty patients who received a diagnosis of Fisher Grade 3 ASAH were enrolled in this study to examine the clinical utility of SBDPs in the detection of cerebral vasospasm in patients with ASAH. All patients underwent placement of a ventriculostomy for continual cerebrospinal fluid drainage within 72 hours of ASAH onset. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected every 6 hours and analyzed using Western Blotting for SBDPs. Onset of vasospasm was defined as an acute onset of a focal neurological deficit or a change in Glasgow Coma Scale score of two or more points. All suspected cases of vasospasm were confirmed on imaging studies.
Both calpain- and caspase-mediated SBDP levels are significantly increased in patients suffering ASAH. The concentration of SBDPs was found to increase significantly over baseline level up to 12 hours before the onset of cerebral arterial vasospasm.
Differential expression of SBDPs suggests oncotic necrotic proteolysis may be predominant in acute brain injury after ASAH and cerebral arterial vasospasm.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroproteomics entails wide-scope study of the nervous system proteome in both its content and dynamics. The field employs high-end analytical mass spectrometry and novel high-throughput antibody approaches to characterize as many proteins as possible. The most common application has been differential analysis to identify a limited set of highly dynamic proteins associated with injury, disease, or other altered states of the nervous system. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important neurological condition where neuroproteomics has revolutionized the characterization of protein dynamics, leading to a greater understanding of post-injury biochemistry. Further, proteins of altered abundance or post-translational modifications identified by neuroproteomic studies are candidate biochemical markers of TBI. This chapter explores the use of neuroproteomics in the study of TBI and the validation of identified putative biomarkers for subsequent clinical translation into novel injury diagnostics.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Progress in brain research