[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is commonly used worldwide as a rodenticide. It inhibits coagulation of blood by inhibiting vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity. An inadequate supply of vitamin K blocks the production of prothrombin and causes hemorrhage. It has been reported that repeated or long-term treatments with this drug cause resistance in wild rodents. However, the mechanism of warfarin resistance in rodents is still not known precisely. Recent studies reported and identified the function of the molecule, vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), which is the main unit of VKOR. An amino acid substitution in VKORC1 is one of the supposed mechanisms of warfarin resistance. An accelerated detoxification system involving cytochrome P450 (CYP) could also cause the rodenticide resistance. Administration of SKF-525A, a potent inhibitor for P450, increased the mortality due to reduction of warfarin metabolism in warfarin-resistant rats. Meanwhile, the appearance of warfarin-resistant rodents has led to the development of the more effective and toxic rodenticide superwarfarin, which is widely used in Europe and the USA. However, animals resistant to this second-generation rodenticide have already been reported in Europe. In this review, we focus on the mechanism and the pleiotropic effects of pesticide resistance in wild rodents.
No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Furazolidone (FZ), one of the nitrofuran fungicides, is used as a veterinary medicine in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. In this study, FZ (125 mg/kg) was administered orally to Wistar rats for 3 days. Results of the Ames test using the S-9 fraction of rats treated with FZ showed a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies. Western blot analysis of hepatic CYP isozymes induced by FZ, revealed a remarkable induction of CYP1A1 apoprotein, but CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 apoproteins were not altered. In addition, the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA level in rats treated with FZ by RT-PCR was significantly enhanced by FZ treatment. We concluded that FZ is apparently mutagenic and induces transcription of the CYP1A1 isozyme, which metabolically activates numerous promutagens, in hepatocytes.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Veterinary Medical Science