Maurilio J Soares

Fundação Carlos Chagas, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Are you Maurilio J Soares?

Claim your profile

Publications (49)96.49 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, alternates between distinct morphological and functional forms during its life cycle. Axenic multiplication and differentiation processes of this protozoan parasite can be reproduced in vitro, enabling the isolation and study of the different evolutionary forms. Although there are several publications attempting the cultivation of T. cruzi under chemically defined conditions, in our experience none of the published media are capable of maintaining T. cruzi in continuous growth.ResultsIn this work we modified a known chemically defined medium for Trypanosoma brucei growth. The resulting LM14 and LM14B defined media enabled cultivation of five different strains of T. cruzi for more than forty passages until now. The parasite¿s biological characteristics such as morphology and differentiation to metacyclic trypomastigotes were maintained when defined media is used.Conclusions The establishment of a defined medium for T. cruzi cultivation is an important tool for basic biological research allowing several different approaches, providing new perspectives for further studies related to cell biology of this parasite.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Microbiology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · American Journal of Plant Sciences
  • Source
    Camila M. O. Azeredo · Maurilio J. Soares
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the effect of the combination of citral, eugenol and thymol, respectively the main constituents of essential oils of Cympobogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Poaceae (lemon grass), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae (clove) and Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae (thyme), on the proliferation of the trypanosomatids Crithidia fasciculata and Trypanosoma cruzi. The constituents were initially added individually at different concentrations to C. fasciculata cultures to estimate the IC50/24h. Concentrations in a triple combination were about 2 times and 16.5 times lower against C. fasciculata and T. cruzi, respectively, as compared to isolated compounds. Incubation of C. fasciculata with the trypanocydal agent benznidazole did not affect parasite growth at concentrations up to 500 µg/ml, but the IC50 of this drug against T. cruzi was 15.8 µg/ml, a value about 2-5 times higher than that of constituents in the triple combination. Analysis of treated C. fasciculata by scanning electron microscopy showed rounding of the cell body. Our data show that combination of essential oil constituents resulted in increased inhibitory activity on growth of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic trypanosomatid species and indicate that the non-patogenic C. fasciculata may represent a resistant model for drug screening in trypanosomatids.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The male reproductive system of insects can have several tissues responsible for the secretion of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs), such as testes, accessory glands, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct and ejaculatory bulb. The SFPs are transferred during mating and can induce several physiological and behavioral changes in females, such as increase in oviposition and decrease in sexual receptivity after copulation. The phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Despite its medical importance, little is known about its reproductive biology. Here we present morphological aspects of the male L. longipalpis reproductive system by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and compare the mating frequency of both virgin and previously mated females.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmania amazonensis lacks a de novo mechanism for cholesterol synthesis and therefore must scavenge this lipid from the host environment. In this study we show that the L. amazonensis takes up and metabolizes human LDL(1) particles in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This mechanism implies the presence of a true LDL receptor because the uptake is blocked by both low temperature and by the excess of non-labelled LDL. This receptor is probably associated with specific microdomains in the membrane of the parasite, such as rafts, because this process is blocked by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCBD). Cholesteryl ester fluorescently-labeled LDL (BODIPY-cholesteryl-LDL) was used to follow the intracellular distribution of this lipid. After uptake it was localized in large compartments along the parasite body. The accumulation of LDL was analyzed by flow cytometry using FITC-labeled LDL particles. Together these data show for the first time that L. amazonensis is able to compensate for its lack of lipid synthesis through the use of a lipid importing machinery largely based on the uptake of LDL particles from the host. Understanding the details of the molecular events involved in this mechanism may lead to the identification of novel targets to block Leishmania infection in human hosts.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Experimental Parasitology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi is a rare example of an eukaryote that has genes for two threonine proteases: HslVU complex and 20S proteasome. HslVU is an ATP-dependent protease consisting of two multimeric components: the HslU ATPase and the HslV peptidase. In this study, we expressed and obtained specific antibodies to HslU and HslV recombinant proteins and demonstrated the interaction between HslU/HslV by coimmunoprecipitation. To evaluate the intracellular distribution of HslV in T. cruzi we used an immunofluorescence assay and ultrastructural localization by transmission electron microscopy. Both techniques demonstrated that HslV was localized in the kinetoplast of epimastigotes. We also analyzed the HslV/20S proteasome co-expression in Y, Berenice 62 (Be-62) and Berenice 78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains. Our results showed that HslV and 20S proteasome are differently expressed in these strains. To investigate whether a proteasome inhibitor could modulate HslV and proteasome expressions, epimastigotes from T. cruzi were grown in the presence of PSI, a classical proteasome inhibitor. This result showed that while the level of expression of HslV/20S proteasome is not affected in Be-78 strain, in Y and Be-62 strains the presence of PSI induced a significantly increase in Hslv/20S proteasome expression. Together, these results suggest the coexistence of the protease HslVU and 20S proteasome in T. cruzi, reinforcing the hypothesis that non-lysosomal degradation pathways have an important role in T. cruzi biology.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Experimental Parasitology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Medical Entomology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two species of trypanosomatids, Crithidia desouzai and Herpetomonas anglusteri, were recently isolated from Diptera in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Crithidia species was found to harbor bacterium-like endosymbionts in the cytoplasm. To biochemically characterize these two species of trypanosomatids, and to try to verify the evolutionary meaning of the presence of endosymbionts, an electrophoretic study was undertaken whereby the two species were compared with eight other species in the same family. Horizontal 12.5% starch gel electrophoresis was used to resolve the isozymes of eight enzyme systems: acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase, and phosphoglucomutase. Ten other enzyme systems were assayed without yielding any reproducible activity. The isozymes observed were conservatively interpreted as being due to the activity of 44 different alleles. All species studied differed in at least one enzyme system. The phenetic (Jaccard similarity index, UPGMA grouping) analysis produced a tree in which the species of Crithidia and Herpetomonas clustered separately, forming monophyletic groupings. All the endosymbiont-bearing species formed a monophyletic cluster, indicating that the presence of bacterium-like endosymbionts may be a synapomorphy of that group, and may represent, therefore, a unique event in the evolution of the genus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Canadian Journal of Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A flagellate trypanosomatid was isolated from the fly Phaenicia cuprina captured in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It grows well in liver infusion – trypticase medium, in the form of choanomastigotes, typical of the genus Crithidia. Morphometrical data obtained at the light microscopical level indicated that the new isolated Crithidia is smaller than Crithidia luciliae, a parasite isolated from Phaenicia sericata. Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections revealed that this trypanosomatid has a flagellar pocket divided into two compartments, one basal and the other apical, separated by a region of attachment of the flagellum to the cell body. The attachment region was characterized in freeze-fracture replicas. The flagellate has a compact kinetoplast DNA network. As in endosymbiote-containing trypanosomatids previously described, no subpellicular microtubules were seen in the regions where the mitochondria touched the plasma membrane, although no endosymbiotes were found in this flagellate. Electrophoretic mobility of six enzymes showed that the parasite could not be grouped in any of the isoenzymic pattern groups of other Crithidia spp. These observations indicate that the trypanosomatid isolated from P. cuprina is a new species of Crithidia. The flagellate is described as Crithidia guilhermei n.sp.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Canadian Journal of Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The life cycle of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi exposes it to several environmental stresses in its invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Stress conditions are involved in parasite differentiation, but little is known about the stress response proteins involved. We report here the first characterization of stress-induced protein-1 (STI-1) in T. cruzi (TcSTI-1). This co-chaperone is produced in response to stress and mediates the formation of a complex between the stress proteins HSP70 and HSP90 in other organisms. Despite the similarity of TcSTI-1 to STI-1 proteins in other organisms, its expression profile in response to various stress conditions, such as heat shock, acidic pH or nutrient starvation, is quite different. Neither polysomal mRNA nor protein levels changed in exponentially growing epimastigotes cultured under any of the stress conditions studied. Increased levels of TcSTI-1 were observed in epimastigotes subjected to nutritional stress in the late growth phase. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed an association between TcSTI-1 and TcHSP70 in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Immunolocalization demonstrated that TcSTI-1 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and there was some colocalization of TcSTI-1 and TcHSP70 around the nucleus. Thus, TcSTI-1 associates with TcHSP70 and TcSTI-1 expression is induced when the parasites are subjected to stress conditions during specific growth phase.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cysteine proteinases have been implicated in many aspects of protozoan parasite pathogenesis. These hydrolases are normally found as zymogens, and some classes in trypanosomatids possess a long C-terminal extension (CTE), for which no function has been assigned. In this paper we hypothesize that the CTE domain of Lpcys2, the abundant lysosomal cysteine proteinase of Leishmania pifanoi amastigotes, is involved in host cell infection. Confirming previous reports that this peptide is highly immunogenic in Trypanosoma cruzi, we detected antibodies against CTE in sera of leishmaniasis patients. We produced a polyclonal antibody specific to Lpcys2 CTE and determined that this antibody was capable of recognizing both L. pifanoi and Leishmania amazonensis cysteine proteinases. Using this antibody, we detected a predominant localization of Lpcys2 CTE in the lysosome and flagellar pocket of cultured axenic amastigotes of both parasite species; however, its location was shifted towards the surface of the parasites during macrophage infection. We examined the role of Lpcys2 CTE in macrophage infection and found a significant reduction in the percentage of infected cells when macrophages were infected with L. pifanoi and L. amazonensis in the presence of anti-CTE antibody. This study suggests a role for leishmanial cysteine proteinases CTE at early stages of infection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electron microscopy has proven to be a reliable and essential tool to determine morphological alterations and target organelles in the investigation of new drugs for Chagas disease. In this review, we focused on evaluating different agents that induce death of Trypanosoma cruzi, i.e. lysophospholipids analogues, naphthoquinones and derivatives, cytoskeletal inhibitors and natural products. Apoptosis-like presents as morphological characteristics DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic body formation. Autophagy involves autophagosome formation, with the appearance of membranes surrounding organelles and cytosolic structures. Necrosis causes the loss of osmotic balance, an increase of cytoplasmic vacuolization and plasma membrane disruption. Mitochondrion appears as a central checkpoint in both apoptosis and necrosis. Our evidences of ultrastructural changes to T. cruzi treated with the different classes of compounds point to dramatic mitochondrial alterations and similar autophagic phenotypes. Lysophospholipid analogues interfere in the lipid biosynthesis in epimastigotes, altering the amount of both phospholipids and sterols, and consequently the physical properties of the membrane. Naphthoquinone derivatives led to a strong DNA fragmentation in trypomastigotes and to the release of cysteine proteases from reservosomes to cytosol in epimastigotes, starting a proteolytic process which results in parasite death. The susceptibility of reservosomes was also observed in parasites treated with propolis, suggesting impairment of lipid metabolism, compromising membrane fluidity and leading to lysis. The cytoskeletal agents blocked mitosis of epimastigotes, arresting cell cycle and impairing the parasite proliferation. The variety of drug stimuli converge to the same pathway of death suggests an intense cross-talking between the three types of PCD in the protozoa.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Micron
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cysteine proteinases have been implicated in many aspects of protozoan parasite pathogenesis. These hydrolases are normally found as zymogens, and some classes in trypanosomatids possess a long C-terminal extension (CTE), for which no function has been assigned. In this paper we hypothesize that the CTE domain of Lpcys2, the abundant lysosomal cysteine proteinase of Leishmania pifanoi amastigotes, is involved in host cell infection. Confirming previous reports that this peptide is highly immunogenic in Trypanosoma cruzi, we detected antibodies against CTE in sera of leishmaniasis patients. We produced a polyclonal antibody specific to Lpcys2 CTE and determined that this antibody was capable of recognizing both L. pifanoi and Leishmania amazonensis cysteine proteinases. Using this antibody, we detected a predominant localization of Lpcys2 CTE in the lysosome and flagellar pocket of cultured axenic amastigotes of both parasite species; however, its location was shifted towards the surface of the parasites during macrophage infection. We examined the role of Lpcys2 CTE in macrophage infection and found a significant reduction in the percentage of infected cells when macrophages were infected with L. pifanoi and L. amazonensis in the presence of anti-CTE antibody. This study suggests a role for leishmanial cysteine proteinases CTE at early stages of infection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to mammals. In some parasitic protozoa, the proteasome is involved in cell differentiation and replication. In this study, we have used proteasome inhibitors to determine the biological role of proteasomes during the replication and in vitro metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological data and flow cytometry to analyze changes in the cell cycle. The growth of T. cruzi epimastigote culture forms in liver infusion tryptose medium was inhibited by the presence of up to 10 microM lactacystin. Inhibition was dose-dependent, with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.35 microM after 24 or 72 h. The metacyclogenesis process in vitro was strongly (95%) inhibited by 5 microM lactacystin treatment. The adhesion phase was not affected, but the epimastigotes did not differentiate into metacyclic trypomastigotes. Most treated epimastigotes had replicated DNA, with swelling of the mitochondrion and an altered distribution of nuclear and kinetoplast DNA. Our findings suggest that inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in T. cruzi epimastigotes does not block adhesion, but disrupts cell division and affects factors triggering differentiation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Parasitology Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transferrin uptake by Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes occurs mainly through the cytostome/cytopharynx. Here, we present evidences for the association of sterol-rich membrane domains with the transferrin endocytic site. Assays using pharmacological treatments to disrupt clathrin-coated pits and hinder caveolae formation showed no association between transferrin uptake and clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but indicated that cholesterol stability in membrane domains is essential for the endocytosis of transferrin. Furthermore, it was observed a connection between the integrity of cytoskeleton elements at the cytopharynx and the function of the cytostome. Our data show that T. cruzi epimastigotes depend on a specialized pathway for transferrin uptake, which is cholesterol-dependent, clathrin-independent, and closely associated with the structural stability of the cytostome/cytopharynx cytoskeleton.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Experimental Parasitology
  • Source
    José R Corrêa · Georgia C Atella · Camila Vargas · Maurilio J Soares
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uptake of transferrin by epimastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi occurs mainly through a cytostome/ cytopharynx, via uncoated endocytic vesicles that bud off from the bottom of the cytopharynx. We have here examined whether detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) domains might be involved in this process. Purified whole cell membrane fractions were assayed for cholesterol levels and used in dot blot analyses. Detergent-resistant membrane markers (cholera B toxin and anti-flotillin-1 antibody) presented positive reaction by dot blots in cholesterol-rich/ protein-poor membrane sub-fractions. The positive dot blot fraction was submitted to lipid composition analysis, showing composition similar to that of raft fractions described for other eukaryotic cells. Immunofluorescence assays allowed the localization of punctual positive signal for flotillin-1, matching the precise cytostome/ cytopharynx location. These data were confirmed by immunofluorescence assays with the co-localization of flotillin-1 and the transferrin uptake site. Our data suggest that DRM domains occur and are integrated at the cytostome/ cytopharynx of T. cruzi epimastigotes, being the main route for transferrin uptake.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Experimental Parasitology
  • José R Corrêa · Reginaldo P Brazil · Maurilio J Soares
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni was first described in 1987 in the state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon region. The initial characterization of this parasite was performed based only in light microscopy techniques. Posterior studies with this Leishmania species, which focused on biochemistry and molecular assays, showed its divergent position in the Leishmania genus. In this study, we characterize the ultrastructure of culture promastigote forms throughout the growth curve. Our results demonstrate a time-dependent accumulation of electron-dense deposit in the acidocalcisome matrix. We have also analyzed, by transmission electron microscopy, the chronic experimental skin lesion induced in hamster. The experimental infection assay showed adhesion of the intracellular parasites to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and the occurrence of free vacuoles in the lesion site containing amastigote forms (the amastigote forms morphometrical data were summarized). Our morphological evidences suggest a possible alternative surviving mechanism for L. (Viannia) lainsoni in chronic lesion site.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Parasitology Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clathrin is a scaffold protein found in different types of coated vesicles in most eukaryotic cells. Major forces that drive clathrin coat formation are the adaptor protein complexes. Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellate protozoan that ingests macromolecules through receptor-mediated endocytosis, but the molecules involved in this process are still poorly known. Bioinformatics was used to identify proteins in the T. cruzi genome database, permitting discrimination of the genes involved in clathrin coat assembly. Clathrin expression was demonstrated in T. cruzi epimastigotes by using several experimental approaches. Western blot analysis showed a single 180-kDa protein band, which corresponds to the molecular mass of mammalian clathrin heavy chain. A flow cytometry assay demonstrated that the clathrin heavy chain was expressed in 97.74% of the cell population analyzed, with a high-fluorescence signal. Immunofluorescence observation showed labeling clustered at the flagellar pocket and Golgi complex region. Coated vesicles budding off from the flagellar pocket and the trans Golgi network membranes were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Our data demonstrate the expression of clathrin in T. cruzi epimastigotes and show the association of this polypeptide with the parasite endocytic and exocytic pathways.
    No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present work, we have investigated the effect of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) on growth and ultrastructure of diverse evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Culture epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of oregano or thyme essential oils and with thymol (the main constituent of thyme), and the inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) was determined by cell counting. Crude extract of oregano essential oil inhibited epimastigote growth (IC(50)/24 h = 175 microg/ml) and also induced trypomastigote lysis (IC(50)/24 h = 115 microg/ml). Thyme essential oil presented IC(50)/24 h values of 77 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 38 mug/ml for trypomastigotes, while treatment with thymol resulted in an IC(50)/24 h of 62 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 53 microg/ml for trypomastigotes. Scanning electron microscopy of treated cells showed few morphological alterations at the plasma membrane. Observation by transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic swelling with occasional morphological alterations in plasma and flagellar membrane. Our data indicate that oregano and thyme essential oils are effective against T. cruzi, with higher activity of thyme, and that thymol may be the main component responsible for the trypanocidal activity.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Parasitology Research

Publication Stats

725 Citations
96.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2013
    • Fundação Carlos Chagas
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
    • Roche Institute of Molecular Biology
      Nutley, New Jersey, United States
  • 1993-2012
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      • Departamento de Biologia Celular e Ultraestrutura Celular (CPqAM)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2011
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2007
    • Instituto de Biologia Molecular do Paraná
      Curityba, Paraná, Brazil
  • 1996
    • Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense
      • Laboratory of Cell and Tissue Biology – LBCT
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil