[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory-gated (RG) radiotherapy is useful for minimizing the irradiated volume of normal tissues resulting from the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. The present study was conducted to evaluate the treatment field in RG radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration. A phantom system consisting of a 3-cm ball-shaped dummy tumor and film placed in a cork lung phantom was used (THK Co., Ltd.). RG radiotherapy was employed in the expiratory phase. The phantom movement distance was set to 2 cm, and the gating signals from a respiratory-gating system (AZ-733V, Anzai Medical) were varied. The settings used for irradiation were an X-ray energy of 6 MV (PRIMUS, Toshiba Medical Systems), treatment field of 5 cm x 7 cm, and X-ray dose of 100 MU. Images were acquired using an electric portal-imaging device (EPID, OPTIVUE 500), and the X-ray dose distribution was measured by the film method. In images acquired using the EPID, the tumor margins became less clear when the gating signals were increased, and the ITVs were determined to be 3.6 cm, 3.7 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.1 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gate, respectively. With regard to the X-ray dose distribution measured by the film method, the dose profile in the cephalocaudal direction was shifted toward the expiratory phase, and the degree of shift became greater when the gating signals were increased. In addition, the optimal treatment fields in the cephalocaudal direction were determined to be 5.2 cm, 5.2 cm, 5.6 cm, and 7.0 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gating, respectively. Although RG radiotherapy is useful for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy, the characteristics of the RG radiotherapy technique and the radiotherapy system must be clearly understood when this method is to be employed in clinical practice. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is now assuming a central role in radiotherapy, and properly identifying internal margins is an important issue for ensuring optimal treatment. The results of this study confirmed that it is necessary to ensure the optimal treatment field in radiotherapy of the trunk and that it is essential to confirm tumor position on the basis of image evaluation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Nippon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory-gated (RG) radiotherapy is useful for minimizing the irradiated volume of normal tissues resulting from the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. In this technique, although improvement in the dose distribution of the target can be expected, the actual absorbed dose distribution is not clearly determined. Therefore, it is important to clarify the absorbed dose at the tumor and at the evaluation points according to the patient's respiration. We have developed a phantom system that simulates patient respiration (TNK Co., Ltd.), to evaluate the absorbed dose and ensure precise RG radiotherapy. Actual patient respiratory signals were obtained using a respiratory synchronization and gating system (AZ-733V, Anzai Medical). The acquired data were then transferred to a phantom system driven by a ball screw to simulate the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. We measured the absorbed dose using a micro-ionization chamber dosimeter and the dose distribution using the film method for RG irradiation at expiratory phase by using Linac (PRIMUS, Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.) X-rays. When the distance of phantom movement was set to the average patient respiratory movement distance of 1.5 cm, we first compared absorbed dose with RG irradiation with a gating signal of 50% or less, and without RG irradiation. The absorbed dose at the iso-center was improved by 6.0% and 4.4% at a field size of 4x4 cm2, and by 1.3% and 0.7% at a field size of 5x5 cm2 with an X-ray energy of 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively. There was, however, no dose change at a field size of 10x10 cm2 and 15x15 cm2. When the gating signal was reduced to 25% and 10%, absorbed dose was also improved. With regard to the flatness of the dose profile, no changes in dose distribution were observed in the lateral direction, e.g., beam flatness was within 1.4% and 1.6% at field sizes of 5x5 cm2 and 10x10 cm2, respectively, with an X-ray energy of 6 MV. In the cranial-caudal direction, the dose profile was relatively large even if a gating signal of 50% was applied, i.e., 8.1% and 10.4% at field sizes of 5x5 cm2 and 10x10 cm2, respectively. Beam flatness without RG was much worse, i.e., 37.8% and 38.2%, at field sizes of 5x5 cm2 and 10x10 cm2, respectively. In both cases, the dose was insufficient in the expiratory direction. Although RG radiotherapy is quite useful, the margins in the inspiratory and expiratory phases should be considered based on the level of gating signal and field size in order to formulate appropriate radiotherapy planning in terms of the shifting of internal structures. To ensure accurate radiotherapy, the characteristics of the RG irradiation technique and the radiotherapy equipment must be clearly understood when this technique is to be employed in clinical practice.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Nippon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi