[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the combined effects of resistance and sprint/plyometric training with or without the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe on muscular performance in women. Fourteen resistance-trained women were randomly assigned to one of 2 training groups: (a) an athletic shoe (N = 6) (AS) group or (b) the Meridian Elyte (N = 8) (MS) group. Training was performed for 10 weeks and consisted of resistance training for 2 days per week and 2 days per week of sprint/plyometric training. Linear periodized resistance training consisted of 5 exercises per workout (4 lower body, 1 upper body) for 3 sets of 3-12 repetition maximum (RM). Sprint/plyometric training consisted of 5-7 exercises per workout (4-5 plyometric exercises, 40-yd and 60-yd sprints) for 3-6 sets with gradually increasing volume (8 weeks) followed by a 2-week taper phase. Assessments for 1RM squat and bench press, vertical jump, broad jump, sprint speed, and body composition were performed before and following the 10-week training period. Significant increases were observed in both AS and MS groups in 1RM squat (12.0 vs. 14.6 kg), bench press (6.8 vs. 7.4 kg), vertical jump height (3.3 vs. 2.3 cm), and broad jump (17.8 vs. 15.2 cm). Similar decreases in peak 20-, 40-, and 60-m sprint times were observed in both groups (20 m: 0.14 vs. 0.11 seconds; 40 m: 0.29 vs. 0.34 seconds; 60 m: 0.45 vs. 0.46 seconds in AS and MS groups, respectively). However, when sprint endurance (the difference between the fastest and slowest sprint trials) was analyzed, there was a significantly greater improvement at 60 m in the MS group. These results indicated that similar improvements in peak sprint speed and jumping ability were observed following 10 weeks of training with either shoe. However, high-intensity sprint endurance at 60 m increased to a greater extent during training with the Meridian Elyte athletic shoe.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 3 wk of L-carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) supplementation and post-resistance-exercise (RE) feeding on hormonal and androgen receptor (AR) responses.
Ten resistance-trained men (mean+/-SD: age, 22+/-1 yr; mass, 86.3+/-15.3 kg; height, 181+/-11 cm) supplemented with LCLT (equivalent to 2 g of L-carnitine per day) or placebo (PL) for 21 d, provided muscle biopsies for AR determinations, then performed two RE protocols: one followed by water intake, and one followed by feeding (8 kcal.kg body mass, consisting of 56% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 28% fat). RE protocols were randomized and included serial blood draws and a 1-h post-RE biopsy. After a 7-d washout period, subjects crossed over, and all experimental procedures were repeated.
LCLT supplementation upregulated (P<0.05) preexercise AR content compared with PL (12.9+/-5.9 vs 11.2+/-4.0 au, respectively). RE increased (P<0.05) AR content compared with pre-RE values in the PL trial only. Post-RE feeding significantly increased AR content compared with baseline and water trials for both LCLT and PL. Serum total testosterone concentrations were suppressed (P<0.05) during feeding trials with respect to corresponding water and pre-RE values. Luteinizing hormone demonstrated subtle, yet significant changes in response to feeding and LCLT.
In summary, these data demonstrated that: 1) feeding after RE increased AR content, which may result in increased testosterone uptake, and thus enhanced luteinizing hormone secretion via feedback mechanisms; and 2) LCLT supplementation upregulated AR content, which may promote recovery from RE.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular performance and resting hormone concentrations during resistance training overreaching. Seventeen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either an amino acid (AA) or a placebo (P) group and underwent 4 weeks of total-body resistance training designed to induce a state of overreaching. The protocol consisted of two 2-week phases (phase 1, 3 sets of 8 exercises performed for 8-12 repetitions; phase 2, 5 sets of 5 exercises performed for 3-5 repetitions). Muscle strength and resting blood samples were determined before (T1) and at the end of each training week (T2-T5). One-repetition maximum squat and bench press decreased at T2 in the P group but not in the AA group; both groups showed similar increases in strength at T3 to T5. Significant elevations in serum creatine kinase and uric acid were observed at T2 in the P group; the elevation in creatine kinase correlated highly to reductions in 1-repetition maximum squat (r = -0.67, r(2) = 0.45). Significant elevations in serum sex hormone-binding globulin were observed during overreaching in the P group from T2 to T5; this response was abolished in the AA group. Significant reductions in total testosterone were observed in the P group at T4 compared with T1, and total testosterone values were higher for the AA group than for the P group from T2 to T4. Serum 22-kd growth hormone concentrations were elevated at T2 to T5 in P group only. No differences were observed in resting cortisol and insulinlike growth factor 1. Hemoglobin concentrations were significantly reduced at T2 to T5 in the P group. These results indicate that the initial impact of high-volume resistance training is muscle strength reduction and hormonal/biochemical alterations. It appears that amino acid supplementation is effective for attenuating muscle strength loss during initial high-volume stress, possibly by reducing muscle damage by maintaining an anabolic environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beneficial role of carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation in endurance exercise is well documented. However, only few data are available on the effects of CHO loading on resistance exercise performance. Because of the repetitive use of high-threshold motor units, it was hypothesized that the power output (power-endurance) of multiple sets of jump squats would be enhanced following a high-CHO (6.5 g CHO kg body mass(-1)) diet compared to a moderate-CHO (4.4 g CHO kg body mass(-1)) diet. Eight healthy men (mean +/- SD: age 26.3 +/- 2.6 years; weight 73.0 +/- 6.3 kg; body fat 13.4 +/- 5.0%; height 178.2 +/- 6.1 cm) participated in 2 randomly assigned counterbalanced supplementation periods of 4 days after having their free-living habitual diet monitored. The resistance exercise test consisted of 4 sets of 12 repetitions of maximal-effort jump squats using a Plyometric Power System unit and a load of 30% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). A 2-minute rest period was used between sets. Immediately before and after the exercise test, a blood sample was obtained to determine the serum glucose and blood lactate concentrations. No significant difference in power performance existed between the 2 diets. As expected, there was a significant (p </= 0.05) decrease in power performance between the repetitions in every set. Blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher postexercise with both the high-CHO and the moderate- or lower-CHO diet, but there were no differences between conditions. The results indicated that the power output during multiple sets of maximal jump squats was not enhanced following a higher-CHO diet compared to a moderate- or lower-CHO diet. These data show that elevated carbohydrate intake is not needed to optimize a repetitive power-endurance performance when it is done as the first exercise in a workout.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation was an extension of a previous study conducted in our laboratory in which we showed that 1 month of treatment with a topical cream (Celadrin) consisting of cetylated fatty acids was effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (Kraemer et al., Journal of Rheumatology, 2004). We wanted to verify that the addition of menthol to the compound would produce a similar percentage of improvement in therapeutic effects. We used a single treatment group with a pre-post experimental design to examine % treatment changes. Individuals diagnosed with OA of the knee (N = 10; age, 66.4 +/- 11.5 years) and severe pain (e.g., OA, rheumatoid arthritis) of the elbow (N = 8; age, 59.1 +/- 18.2 years) and wrist (N = 10; age, 60.3 +/- 16.8 years) were tested for pain and functional performance before and after 1 week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids and menthol applied twice per day. In individuals with knee OA, significant improvements in stair-climbing ability (about 12%), "up-and-go" performance (about 12%), balance and strength (about 16.5%), and range of motion (about 3.5%) were observed, as were reductions in pain. In individuals with severe pain of the elbow and wrist, significant improvements in dynamic (about 22 and 24.5%, respectively) and isometric (about 33 and 42%, respectively) local muscular endurance were observed, as was a reduction in pain. Neither group demonstrated significant changes in maximal grip strength or maximal force production. One week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids and menthol was similarly effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with arthritis of the knee, elbow, and wrist. The % changes were consistent with our prior work on the compound without menthol. Further work is needed to determine the impact of menthol in such a cream. Nevertheless, our data support the use of a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids (with or without menthol) for enhancing the potential for exercise training in this population.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training on circulating concentrations of growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) in response to acute heavy resistance exercise.
Using a cross-sectional experimental design, a group of resistance-trained men (RT, N=9, 7.9+/-1.3 yr resistance training experience) and a group of untrained men (UT, N=10) performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol (AHREP) consisting of 6 sets of 10 repetition maximum parallel squats. Blood samples were obtained 72 h before exercise, immediately before exercise, and 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise.
Significant increases (P<0.05) in GHBP, immunoreactive growth hormone (iGH), and IGF-1 were observed in both subject groups after AHREP. There were no differences (P>0.05) between groups in GHBP at rest or after AHREP. However, RT exhibited a significantly greater iGH response to AHREP than UT subjects, and significantly higher IGF-1 values at rest and after exercise. Significant positive correlations were found between GHBP and BMI, body fat, and leptin in both groups. A significant positive correlation also was observed between resting leptin and GHBP values in UT but not RT subjects.
In summary, these data indicate that resistance training does not increase blood GHBP. Nevertheless, the increases observed with IGF-1 concentrations in the resistance-trained subjects do suggest an apparent adaptation with the regulation of this hormone. If there was in fact an increase in GH sensitivity and GH receptor expression at the liver that was not detected by blood GHBP in this study, it may be possible that factors contributing to the circulating concentration of GHBP other than hepatocytes (e.g., leptin and adipocytes) may serve to mask training-induced increases in circulating GHBP of a hepatic origin, thus masking any detectable increase in GH receptor expression.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training on circulating concentrations of growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) in response to acute heavy resistance exercise. Methods: Using a cross-sectional experimental design, a group of resistance-trained men (RT, N = 9, 7.9 +/- 1.3 yr resistance training experience) and a group of untrained men (UT, N = 10) performed an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol (AHREP) consisting of 6 sets of 10 repetition maximum parallel squats. Blood samples were obtained 72 h before exercise, immediately before exercise, and 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results: Significant increases (P < 0.05) in GHBP, immunoreactive growth hormone (iGH), and IGF-1 were observed in both subject groups after AHREP. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between groups in GHBP at rest or after AHREP. However, RT exhibited a significantly greater iGH response to AHREP than UT subjects, and significantly higher IGF-1 values at rest and after exercise. Significant positive correlations were found between GHBP and BMI, body fat, and leptin in both groups. A significant positive correlation also was observed between resting leptin and GHBP values in UT but not RT subjects. Conclusions: In summary, these data indicate that resistance training does not increase blood GHBP. Nevertheless, the increases observed with IGF-1 concentrations in the resistance-trained subjects do suggest an apparent adaptation with the regulation of this hormone. If there was in fact an increase in GH sensitivity and GH receptor expression at the liver that was not detected by blood GHBP in this study, it may be possible that factors contributing to the circulating concentration of GHBP other than hepatocytes (e.g., leptin and adipocytes) may serve to mask training-induced increases in circulating GHBP of a hepatic origin, thus masking any detectable increase in GH receptor expression.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of 30 days of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids on static postural stability and plantar pressures in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees. Forty patients diagnosed with knee OA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 topical treatment groups: (a) cetylated fatty acid (CFA; N = 20; age = 62.7 +/- 11.7 years); or (b) placebo (P; N = 20; age = 64.6 +/- 10.5 years). Patients were tested on 2 occasions: (a) baseline (T1), and (b) following a 30-day treatment period consisting of cream application twice per day (T2). Assessments included 20- and 40-second quiet standing protocols on a force plate to measure center of pressure (COP) total excursion length, COP velocity, and rearfoot and forefoot plantar pressure distribution. In the CFA group, a significant reduction in the COP excursion length and velocity were observed at T2, whereas no significant differences were observed in the P group. No significant differences in mean forefoot, rearfoot, or rearfoot-to-forefoot plantar pressure ratios were observed in either group at T2. However, in a subgroup of participants designated to be right- or left-side dominant, improvements in the right-to-left forefoot plantar pressure ratios were observed in both groups. These data indicate that 30 days of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids improves static postural stability in patients with knee OA presumably due to pain relief during quiet standing. Such over-the-counter treatment may help improve the exercise trainability of people with OA.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine androgen receptor (AR) content in the vastus lateralis following two resistance exercise protocols of different volume. Nine resistance-trained men (age=24.3+/-4.4 years) performed the squat exercise for 1 (SS) and 6 sets (MS) of 10 repetitions in a random, counter-balanced order. Muscle biopsies were performed at baseline, and 1h following each protocol. Blood was collected prior to, immediately following (IP), and every 15 min after each protocol for 1h. No acute elevations in serum total testosterone were observed following SS, whereas significant 16-23% elevations were observed at IP, 15, and 30 min post-exercise following MS. No acute elevations in plasma cortisol were observed following SS, whereas significant 31-49% elevations were observed for MS at IP, 15, and 30 min post-exercise. Androgen receptor content did not change 1h following SS but significantly decreased by 46% following MS. These results demonstrated that a higher volume of resistance exercise resulted in down-regulation of AR content 1h post-exercise. This may have been due to greater protein catabolism associated with the higher level of stress following higher-volume resistance exercise.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve men either performed 10 weeks of timed circuit weight training 3 days week(-1) (CWT; n=8; X+/-SE; age=23.6+/-1.8 years), or were part of a sedentary control group (n=4; age=20.5+/-1.0 years). Significance was P<0.05 for all analyses. The CWT program significantly increased 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) strength for nine of 10 exercises (15-42%). Although no body composition measure significantly changed for the CWT group, low-to-moderate effect sizes were evident for body weight, lean body mass, and relative fat. CWT did not alter percent fiber type, but did increase cross-sectional areas for type IIA fibers (microm(2); pre=5988+/-323, post=7259+/-669). Relative (%) myosin heavy-chain (MHC) expression increased for MHC IIa (pre=42.5+/-2.7, post=50.1+/-2.6), and decreased for MHC IIb (pre=21.8+/-2.8, post=15.4+/-2.4) for the CWT group. Serum testosterone, cortisol, and the testosterone/cortisol ratio did not change at any time for the CWT group. None of the measured variables changed for the control group. These data indicate that for untrained subjects, CWT of the type used resulted in improved muscular strength and a tendency toward increased lean mass. Compared with other types of weight training, fewer adaptations of the muscle fibers were evident. This is likely due in part to the relatively low loads used with this type of resistance exercise.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids on functional performance in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees.
Forty patients diagnosed with knee OA were randomly assigned to one of 2 topical treatment groups: (1) cetylated fatty acid (CFA) (n = 20; age 62.7 +/- 11.7 yrs); or (2) placebo group (n = 20; age 64.6 +/- 10.5 yrs). Patients were tested on 3 occasions: (1) baseline (T1), (2) 30 min after initial treatment (T2), and (3) after 30-day treatment of cream application twice per day (T3). Assessments included knee range of motion (ROM), timed "up-and-go" from a chair and stair climbing, medial step-down test, and the unilateral anterior reach.
For stair climbing ability and the up-and-go test, significant decreases in time were observed at T2 and T3 compared to T1 in the CFA group only. These differences were significant between groups. Supine ROM of the knees increased at T2 and T3 in CFA group, whereas no difference was observed in the placebo group. For the medial step-down test, significant improvement was observed at T2 and T3 compared to T1 in CFA group. For the unilateral anterior reach, significant improvement was observed for both legs in CFA group and in only the left leg in the placebo group. However, the improvements observed in CFA group were significantly greater than placebo group for both legs.
Use of a CFA topical cream is an effective treatment for improving knee ROM, ability to ascend/descend stairs, ability to rise from sitting, walk and sit down, and unilateral balance.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of creatine supplementation during short-term resistance training overreaching on performance, body composition, and resting hormone concentrations, 17 men were randomly assigned to supplement with 0.3 g/kg per day of creatine monohydrate (CrM: n=9) or placebo (P: n=8) while performing resistance exercise (5 days/week for 4 weeks) followed by a 2-week taper phase. Maximal squat and bench press and explosive power in the bench press were reduced during the initial weeks of training in P but not CrM. Explosive power in the bench press, body mass, and lean body mass (LBM) in the legs were augmented to a greater extent in CrM ( P<or=0.05) by the end of the 6-week period. A tendency for greater 1-RM squat improvement ( P=0.09) was also observed in CrM. Total testosterone (TT) and the free androgen index (TT/SHBG) decreased in CrM and P, reaching a nadir at week 3, whereas sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) responded in an opposite direction. Cortisol significantly increased after week 1 in CrM (+29%), and returned to baseline at week 2. Insulin was significantly depressed at week 1 (-24%) and drifted back toward baseline during weeks 2-4. Growth hormone and IGF-I levels were not affected. Therefore, some measures of muscular performance and body composition are enhanced to a greater extent following the rebound phase of short-term resistance training overreaching with creatine supplementation and these changes are not related to changes in circulating hormone concentrations obtained in the resting, postabsorptive state. In addition, creatine supplementation appears to be effective for maintaining muscular performance during the initial phase of high-volume resistance training overreaching that otherwise results in small performance decrements.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · Arbeitsphysiologie
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a consequence of the physiological demands experienced during a competitive soccer season, the antagonistic relationship between anabolic and catabolic processes can affect performance. Twenty-five male collegiate soccer players were studied throughout a season (11 weeks) to investigate the effects of long-term training and competition. Subjects were grouped as starters (S; n = 11) and nonstarters (NS; n = 14). Measures of physical performance, body composition, and hormonal concentrations (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) were assessed preseason (T1) and 5 times throughout the season (T2-T6). Starters and NS participated in 83.06% and 16.95% of total game time, respectively. Nonstarters had a significant increase (+1.6%) in body fat at T6 compared to T1. Isokinetic strength of the knee extensors (1.05 rad.sec(-1)) significantly decreased in both S (-12%) and NS (-10%; p < or = 0.05) at T6. Significant decrements in sprint speed (+4.3%) and vertical jump (-13.8%) were found at T5 in S only. Though within normal ranges (10.4-41.6 nmol.L(-1)), concentrations of T at T1 were low for both groups, but increased significantly by T6. Concentrations of C were elevated in both groups, with concentrations at the high end of the normal range (normal range 138-635 nmol.L(-1)) at T1 and T4 in NS and T4 in S, with both groups remaining elevated at T6. Data indicate that players entering the season with low circulating concentrations of T and elevated levels of C can experience reductions in performance during a season, with performance decrements exacerbated in starters over nonstarters. Soccer players should therefore have a planned program of conditioning that does not result in an acute overtraining phenomenon prior to preseason (e.g., young players trying to get in shape quickly in the 6 to 8 weeks in the summer prior to reporting for preseason camp). The detrimental effects of inappropriate training do not appear to be unloaded during the season and catabolic activities can predominate.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gymnastics relies upon power as a critical component of sports-specific fitness. The purpose of this study was to monitor long-term training adaptations in the power of National Collegiate Athletics Association Division I women gymnasts. Twenty members of a women's gymnastic team (aged 18-22) were tracked over 3 years with the first year a baseline year of testing. Whole body power for the counter-movement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) vertical jump was obtained via force plate analyses at 2 assessment time points during each year (February and November). Results showed significant (p < or = 0.05) and continued increases in peak power output in the CMJ and SJ at each biannual assessment. Improvements of 46% (+1010 W) for the CMJ and 43% (+900 W) for the SJ were observed at the end of the tracking period. Peak power for the CMJ and SJ were recorded at 3210 W (+/-350 W) and 3000 W (+/-152 W), respectively. Associated improvements in the time to peak power of 36% (-0.239 second) and 38% (-0.151 second) were also found for the CMJ and SJ. There were no significant changes in body mass or total skinfold thickness, however, a shift toward improved fat free mass (i.e., lean muscle mass) was apparent. These data underscore the importance that specificity, and more importantly power development, should play in the conditioning of collegiate women gymnasts' training programs.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of low frequency of vibration have not been widely studied in the scientific literature, yet humans are exposed to such environmental stress everyday. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological responses to low-frequency upper-body limb vibration. Fourteen healthy men were exposed to 1 hour of bilateral hand-arm vibration and control (no vibration) conditions in a counter-balanced, cross-over design separated by 2 days. Subjects gripped handles that were coupled to a vibrating device, which oscillated in an anterior to posterior direction at a constant frequency of 7.5 Hz and a displacement of 0.38 cm. A series of tests were performed prior to and following the vibration to assess cardiovascular response, visual acuity, tremor of the hand and fingers, grip strength, anticipation response, limb girths, and a movement repositioning task. There were significantly (p < or = 0.05) more visual errors postvibration compared with postcontrol on a standardized vision chart. Tremor was significantly reduced during the vibration compared with the control condition. There were no significant changes in grip strength. Mean anticipation response time was significantly increased during the control condition (+3.3%) but not after vibration (+1.0%). There was a significant improvement in the movement repositioning task after vibration compared with control. Heart rates during the vibration protocol were not significantly higher than the control condition. No significant increases in limb size representative of swelling were observed. These data indicate that exposure to 1 hour of low-frequency hand-arm vibration has only minor effects on physiological function.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of increasing milk on bone and body composition responses to resistance training in adolescents. Twenty-eight boys (13 to 17 years of age) were randomly assigned to consume, in addition to their habitual diet, 3 servings/day of 1% fluid milk (n=14) or juice not fortified with calcium (n=14) while engaged in a 12-week resistance-training program. For all subjects combined, there were significant (P<or=.05) changes in height (+0.5%), sigmaseven skin folds (-7.7%), body mass (+2.6%), lean body mass (+5.1%), fat mass (-9.3%), whole-body bone mineral content (+3.6%), bone mineral density (+1.8%), and maximal strength in the squat (+43%) and bench press (+23%). Compared with juice, the milk group had a significantly greater increase in bone mineral density (0.014 vs 0.028 g/cm(2)). Increasing intake of milk in physically active adolescent boys may enhance bone health.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2003 · Journal of the American Dietetic Association