[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gammadelta T cells are implicated in host defense against microbes and tumors but their mode of function remains largely unresolved. Here, we have investigated the ability of activated human Vgamma9Vdelta2(+) T cells (termed gammadelta T-APCs) to cross-present microbial and tumor antigens to CD8(+) alphabeta T cells. Although this process is thought to be mediated best by DCs, adoptive transfer of ex vivo antigen-loaded, human DCs during immunotherapy of cancer patients has shown limited success. We report that gammadelta T-APCs take up and process soluble proteins and induce proliferation, target cell killing and cytokine production responses in antigen-experienced and naïve CD8(+) alphabeta T cells. Induction of APC functions in Vgamma9Vdelta2(+) T cells was accompanied by the up-regulation of costimulatory and MHC class I molecules. In contrast, the functional predominance of the immunoproteasome was a characteristic of gammadelta T cells irrespective of their state of activation. Gammadelta T-APCs were more efficient in antigen cross-presentation than monocyte-derived DCs, which is in contrast to the strong induction of CD4(+) alphabeta T cell responses by both types of APCs. Our study reveals unexpected properties of human gammadelta T-APCs in the induction of CD8(+) alphabeta T effector cells, and justifies their further exploration in immunotherapy research.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subtype of activated human gammadelta T cells, termed Vdelta2+ T cells, has antigen-presentation features similar in potency and efficacy to those seen in dendritic cells. Comparable treatment of alphabeta T cells does not result in 'professional' antigen presenting cells (APCs). What is so special about Vdelta2+ T cells? How do they acquire these unexpected properties? Under what physiological conditions would such a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity come into play? In addition to discussing these questions, we introduce a model that correlates the expression of lymph node homing receptors in Vdelta2+ T cells with the involvement of this alternative type of APC in anti-microbial alphabeta T cell responses.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Trends in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human gammadelta T cells are considered to play a vital role in protective immunity through cytokine secretion and cytotoxic activity. We report that cells expressing the Vgamma2Vdelta2+-T cell receptor (Vdelta2+ T cells) also display principal characteristics of professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells. Thus, when activated, these cells efficiently processed and displayed antigens and provided co-stimulatory signals sufficient for strong induction of naïve alphabeta T cell proliferation and differentiation. We suggest that, upon microbial activation, Vdelta2+ T cells participate in the induction of adaptive immune responses and that these cells may be a useful tool in vaccine development and immunotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functionally naive CD8 T cells in peripheral blood from adult humans can be fully described by their CD45RA(bright)CCR7(+)CD62L(+) cell surface phenotype. Cord blood lymphocytes, from healthy newborns, are homogenously functionally naive. Accordingly, the majority of cord blood CD8 T cells express the same pattern of cell surface molecules. Unexpectedly, however, a significant fraction of cord blood CD8 T cells express neither CCR7 nor CD62L. Yet these cells remain functionally naive as they contain high levels of TCR excision circles, have long telomeres, display highly polyclonal TCRs, and do not exhibit immediate effector functions. In addition, these CD8 T cells already represent a significant fraction of the mature naive CD8 single-positive thymocyte repertoire and may selectively express the cutaneous lymphocyte Ag. We suggest that CD8 single-positive thymocytes comprise two pools of naive precursors that exhibit distinct homing properties. Once seeded in the periphery, naive CCR7(+)CD62L(+) CD8 T cells patrol secondary lymphoid organs, whereas naive CCR7(-)CD62L(-) CD8 T cells selectively migrate to peripheral tissues such as skin.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: gamma delta T cells are inadequately defined both in terms of their migration potential and contribution to antimicrobial immunity. Here, we have examined the migration profile of human blood gamma delta T cells and related cell lines and correlated these findings with their distribution in secondary lymphoid tissues and their function in B-cell cocultures. We find that resting gamma delta T cells are characterized by an inflammatory migration program similar to cells of the innate immune system. However, T-cell receptor (TCR) triggering resulted in the rapid but transient induction of a lymph node (LN)-homing program, as evidenced by functional CCR7 expression and concomitant reduction in expression and function of CCR5 and, to a lesser degree, CCR2. Moreover, the LN-homing program was reflected by the presence of gamma delta T cells in gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues, notably in clusters within germinal centers of B-cell follicles. In line with these findings, V gamma V delta-TCR triggering resulted in prominent expression of essential B-cell costimulatory molecules, including CD40L, OX40, CD70, and ICOS. Furthermore, gamma delta T cells were shown to provide potent B-cell help during in vitro antibody production. Collectively, our findings agree with a role for gamma delta T cells in humoral immunity during the early phase of antimicrobial responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we have examined the migration responses of human peripheral blood or tonsillar B lymphocytes to a selection of 27 chemokines. Freshly isolated (CD19(+)) B lymphocytes show greatly impaired in vitro chemotaxis which is overcome by overnight culture. The best responses of cultured B lymphocytes were observed with BCA-1, SLC, ELC and SDF-1, reaching 19-26% of total input cells that have migrated, followed by LARC and TECK with 5-10% of migrated cells, whereas no other chemokine was found to be active. Stimulation of B lymphocytes with lipopolysaccharide or anti-CD40 plus IL-4 resulted in marked enhancement of the migration response to BCA-1, SLC, ELC and SDF-1, reaching 30-60% migrated cells at 12 or 36 h of culture respectively. The activation-dependent increase in the migration efficacy was transient and declined to base level responses after 72 h of culture. Under no circumstances did we detect B lymphocyte chemotaxis to inflammatory chemokines. Also, mobilization of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), an otherwise typical response of leukocytes to chemokines, was not observed. The transient increase in B lymphocyte migration did not correlate with changes in chemokine receptor expression, as evidenced by cell surface staining with antibodies to CXCR4, CXCR5 and CCR6, and by receptor transcript analyses. BCA-1, SLC, ELC and SDF-1 are typical 'housekeeping' chemokines with prominent expression at discrete locations in lymphoid tissues. Modulation of migration to these chemokines may be a critical mechanism for the proper positioning of B lymphocytes during humoral responses in secondary lymphoid tissues.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2000 · International Immunology