[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients may develop side effects from centrally acting drugs, have contraindications for neurosurgical procedures, or experience relapse during conventional therapies. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT/A) has been reported to be effective for TN, although this finding has been challenged. An overview of the available evidence based on a narrative/qualitative analysis of the literature is presented. About 90% of patients who receive BoNT/A show an improvement, a higher figure than that reported for the placebo effect of BoNT/A for other headaches. Tolerability of BoNT/A is good, and its few side-effects are transient. The articles reviewed were mainly case reports, case series and open-label trials; however, randomized controlled trials have endorsed the efficacy of BoNT/A for TN. This evidence, together with a better understanding of the analgesic mechanisms of BoNT/A and its proven efficacy in treating other pain syndromes, supports the use of this toxin as a therapeutic option for TN.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is susceptible to misdiagnosis, especially in the earlier stages of the disease. Recently, in vivo imaging techniques assessing the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) have emerged as a useful tool in PD diagnosis, improving its accuracy.
It was to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) DAT ligand, and highlight relevant aspects of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs) in this context.
We described four representative patients with clinically unclear parkinsonian syndromes who underwent [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT and reviewed the clinical implications.
DAT-SPECT is an important, cost-effective, technique for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Additionally, SWEDD cases present clinical and paraclinical peculiarities that may retrospectively identify them as essential/dystonic tremor. The lack of histopathological data limits further conclusions.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate if botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) had a preemptive antinociceptive effect in a formalin-induced orofacial pain model (FT). To test this hypothesis, male Rattus norvegicus were injected with isotonic saline solution 0.9% or BoNT/A administered as a 40 μl bolus, lateral to their nose, at 24 hours, 8, 15, 22, 29 or 36 days pre-FT. The procedures were repeated 42 days later. Influence on motor activity was assessed through the open-field test. Pain scores corresponded to the time spent rubbing and flicking the injected area. Animals pre-treated with BoNT/A at the first protocol (8 days subgroup) showed reduced inflammatory scores (p=0.011). For the other groups no significant results were observed at any phase. Motor activity was similar in both groups. BoNT/A showed to be effective preventing inflammatory pain up to eight days after the first treatment, an effect not reproduced on the second dose administration.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacies of immunosuppressive (IMS) and immunomodulatory (IMM) drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported in several studies. These agents can reduce relapse rates and lesions observed by magnetic resonance imaging studies. However, the effect of these medications in disability progression over 4 years is rarely examined.
To study the disabilities associated with MS patients after a long time period and to analyze the therapeutic influence of different types of treatments in patient disease progression.
This is an open, uncontrolled, non-randomized, retrospective study of the disease progression using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) in 155 cases of MS, which were 76% female with a mean age of onset of 30.21+/-9.70. The follow-up period was 115.39+/-88.08 months (median 92, 3 to 447 months). These cases were submitted to the following 277 different therapeutic procedures: 62 without IMS or IMM therapy (SYT) (just corticosteroids), 53 with azathioprine (AZA), 53 interferon-beta (IFNbeta)-1b 250 microg (BET), 55 IFNbeta-1a 22 microg (R22), 19 IFNbeta-1a 30 microg (AVO), 15 IFNbeta-1a 44 microg (R44), 15 glatiramer acetate (COP) 20 mg, and 5 cases with mitoxantrone (MIT).
The median EDSS group was 2.00 (0 to 5.5, mean 1.89+/-1.52) at the onset of each treatment and 2.50 (0 to 9, mean 3.06+/-2.18) at the end. The median initial MSSS was 3.34 (0.25 to 9.50, mean 3.94+/-2.91) and the final medial was 3.90 (0.05 to 9.88, mean 4.02+/-2.78). The EDSS between initial and final score for the whole group had statistically significant progression, as well as for the sub-groups SYT, AZA, BET and R22. No statistically significance difference was found in the MSSS between initial and final scores in the whole group or treatment sub-groups. The variation between the initial and final EDSS and MSSS among the types of treatments found no statistical significance for any group.
In this study series, no statistical difference was found in the long-term progression of disability among the IMS and IMM treated cases, nor in the cases treated only with corticosteroids.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved in spinal transmission of nociceptive information in physiological and pathological conditions. Our objective was to study the influence of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on pain control in the trigeminal system using a formalin-induced orofacial pain model. Motor performance was also evaluated. Male Rattus norvegicus were pre-treated with topiramate (T) (n=8), memantine (M) (n=8), divalproex (D) (n=8) or isotonic saline solution (ISS) (n=10) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the formalin test. Formalin 2.5% was injected into the right upper lip (V2 branch) and induced two phases: phase I (early or neurogenic) (0-3 min) and phase II (late or inflammatory) (12-30 min). For motor behavior performance we used the open-field test and measured latency to movement onset, locomotion and rearing frequencies, and immobility time. Pre-treatment of animals with M and D only attenuated nociceptive formalin behavior for phase II. T increased locomotion and rearing frequencies and reduced immobility time. Treatment with M increased immobility time and with D reduced locomotion frequency. Our results showed that the NMDA antagonist (M) is more potent than the non-NMDA antagonists (D and T) in the control of pain in the inflammatory phase. The non-NMDA topiramate improved motor performance more than did D and M, probably because T has more anxiolytic properties.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the trigemino-cervical system constitutes one of the first steps in the genesis of migraine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of trigemino-cervical convergence mechanisms and to establish whether such mechanisms may also be of inhibitory origin. We describe a case of a 39-years-old woman suffering from episodic migraine who showed a significant improvement in her frontal headache during migraine attacks if the greater occipital nerve territory was massaged after the appearance of static mechanical allodynia (cortical sensitization). We review trigemino-cervical convergence and diffuse nociceptive inhibitory control (DNIC) mechanisms and suggest that the convergence mechanisms are not only excitatory but also inhibitory.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria