[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the natural history and the pathogenicity of the TT virus (TTV). We present our findings of a cross-sectional study based on the TTV DNA screening of 173 multiple-transfused patients and a longitudinal study based on the follow-up of TTV DNA-positive patients. Overall, 48 patients (27.7%) tested positive for TTV DNA. The influence of the number of blood donor exposures on the prevalence of blood-borne viral infection indicates that TTV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and an RNA virus known as GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) share a parenteral transmission, but that TTV, in contrast to the 2 other viruses, is also transmitted by at least another efficient means. The patients having a well-defined date of TTV infection were positive for TTV DNA during a mean period of 3.1 years. A chronic infection was observed in 31 cases (86%). TTV carriage appeared clinically benign in all patients. No clinical evidence of a disease potentially linked to the TTV infection was observed in patients with TTV DNA carriage over several years. The majority of TTV carriers had no biochemical evidence of liver disease. The prevalence of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was higher in the TTV DNA-positive group, even in the absence of HCV infection, but the observed peaks of ALT level were most often transient and very mild. The prevalence of TTV DNA observed in blood recipients is consistent with that of TTV infection observed in blood donors. TTV infection frequently tends to persist. (Blood. 2000;95:347-351)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the frequency and prognostic significance of a plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load below the detection
threshold during the natural history of infection, an ultrasensitive assay was used to identify persons with low virus loads
in a cohort of 111 untreated subjects with a known date of seroconversion. Six persons had HIV RNA loads <40 viral copies
(VC)/mL during the first years of HIV infection. The probability of meeting the criteria for long-term nonprogression was
higher in these subjects (P =). However, a virus load <40 VC/mL was rare during the natural history of infection, even during the first years of symptomless
HIV carriage. Such data confirm the general trend of disease progression in the entire population of HIV carriers.
Preview · Article · Aug 1999 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the
long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened
on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried
the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant
differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV
RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease
progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression
of HIV disease in coinfected persons.
Preview · Article · May 1999 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cohort of 103 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons with well-defined dates of seroconversion were
studied to determine whether baseline plasma HIV RNA loads 6–12 months after seroconversion have prognostic value. Baseline
plasma virus loads had predictive value for the disease-free survival rate and for the survival rate. The level of baseline
HIV RNA also had a strong negative predictive value for the CD4+ T cell count during the fifth year of infection: A baseline
load > 5 log was predictive of a CD4+ T cell count < 500/mm3 5 years after infection. Baseline HIV RNA load was a CD4+ T cell-independent predictor of progression to death. The major
finding was that the disease outcome for HIV-1-infected persons is already determined during the first year of infection.
Preview · Article · Jul 1998 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, cases of chronic hepatitis were linked to the presence of genomic sequences of a newly described RNA virus termed hepatitis G virus (HGV) and belonging to the Flaviviridae family.
The presence of HGV RNA was searched for by polymerase chain reaction in a population of blood donors and in patients who had received multiple blood component transfusions and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions.
Twenty-one (4.2%) of 500 donors were positive for HGV RNA as were 21 (10.7%) of 196 nonimmunosuppressed patients who had received multiple transfusions of packed red cells, 4 (8.7%) of 46 common variable immune deficiency (CVID) patients who had received only IVIG, and 22 (24.7%) of 89 bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients who had received IVIG and cellular components. The proportion of HGV-positive individuals was significantly higher in the immunosuppressed recipients (CVID and BMT patients) than in the nonimmunosuppressed patients who were multiply transfused with packed red cells (p < 0.03). The proportion of HGV-positive individuals was significantly higher in the BMT patients who had received IVIG and cellular components than in the CVID patients who had received IVIG only (p < 0.03). Eight (17.0%) of the 47 HGV-positive recipients and 48 (16.9%) of the 284 HGV-negative recipients had a serum alanine aminotransferase level higher than the upper limit of normal (nonsignificant difference). The medical history of HGV-positive donors failed to reveal a particular at-risk event. The large majority of HGV-infected patients had a normal serum alanine aminotransferase level, and the proportion of patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase was the same in HGV-positive and in HGV-negative recipients.
The pathological significance of HGV infection remains unelucidated, and the classification of HGV as a new hepatitis virus was perhaps premature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA sequences was sought by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood
mononuclear cells of 4 groups: 6 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with well-defined dates of seroconversion,
during the period between the diagnosis of HIV infection and the appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS); 45 HIV-positive persons
with no symptoms of HIV infection; 11 AIDS patients with KS; and 14 AIDS patients without KS. HHV-8 DNA PCR was positive in
3 of the 6 patients during HIV infection preceding the appearance of KS and in all but 1 of 11 AIDS patients with KS. HHV-8
DNA PCR was negative in all but 1 of the 45 HIV-positive persons with no symptoms of infection and in all but 1 AIDS patient
without KS. These results indicate that HHV-8 DNA may be detected several years before the occurrence of KS in HIV-infected
Preview · Article · Sep 1996 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak has been suspected of being caused by an infusion of intravenous immune globulin.
Three laboratories were mandated by the French regulatory agency to prospectively screen on a national scale those persons having received suspected batches: 233 exposed patients were recalled and tested for HCV antibody and for HCV RNA.
Nineteen patients (8.1%) were found positive for HCV RNA; 7 of these 19 were positive for the HCV antibody.
The link between HCV infection and intravenous immune globulin was reinforced by the overrepresentation of the 2b genotype (58%), which contrasts with the low prevalence of this genotype in France (1%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreak has been suspected of being caused by an infusion of intravenous immune globulin.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Three laboratories were mandated by the French regulatory agency to prospectively screen on a national scale those persons having received suspected batches: 233 exposed patients were recalled and tested for HCV antibody and for HCV RNA.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients (8.1%) were found positive for HCV RNA; 7 of these 19 were positive for the HCV antibody.
CONCLUSION: The link between HCV infection and intravenous immune globulin was reinforced by the overrepresentation of the 2b genotype (58%), which contrasts with the low prevalence of this genotype in France (1%).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B19 parvovirus (B19) may be transmitted iatrogenically by blood, and its prevalence in blood donations is estimated at 1 in 3,300 to 1 in 50,000. As a large number of blood donations make up the plasma pools used to produce plasma derivatives, even a virus as rare as B19 in a population of blood donors may result in the frequent contamination of plasma batches. The percentage of albumin batches containing B19 DNA has never been determined.
The presence of B19 DNA was investigated by a polymerase chain reaction assay (with a primer pair in the VP1 region) in a total of 12 and 17 batches of 4- and 20-percent albumin, respectively, from two different manufacturers.
No B19 DNA was detected in the batches tested.
The current fractionation process used to obtain these albumin preparations is seen to allow the efficient degradation and/or elimination of B19.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A transfusional B19 parvovirus infection may have severe consequences in immunocompromised hosts. The presence of B19 DNA was investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in 30 batches of solvent/detergent-treated clotting factor concentrates (12 batches of factor VIII, 16 batches of factor IX, 1 batch of factor VII, and 1 batch of PPSB). B19 DNA was detected in 6 (20%) batches, including 3 factor VIII and 3 factor IX concentrates. Because of the frequency of B19 DNA in batches of clotting factors, measures to prevent transfusional risk of B19 infection via these blood products are justified, especially in recipients immunocompromised by HIV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with isolated and persistent core antibodies (anti-p24 or -p17) to HIV-1 are sometimes diagnosed through the systematic screening of blood donations. The significance of such serum reactivities remains unknown. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a new technique allowing the direct detection of HIV-1 DNA in blood samples. In this study, PCR was used to detect HIV-1 DNA in 20 individuals with isolated and persistent core antibodies (14 anti-p24 and 6 -p17), in seven sexual partners of these individuals, in 55 HIV-1-seropositive individuals (positive controls), and in 105 HIV-1-seronegative blood donors at low risk of HIV-1 infection (negative controls). No HIV-1 DNA was detected in individuals with isolated and persistent core antibodies, in their sexual partners, or in negative control individuals, although PCR was positive in 54 of 55 seropositive control individuals. These results strongly suggest that individuals with isolated and persistent core antibodies are not infected with HIV-1.