- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace return-to-work (RTW) interventions delivered at very early stages (<15 days) of sickness absence (SA). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Cochrane library database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsychInfo and Embase. Using pre-established criteria, independent pairs of researchers carried out the study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction. Workplace interventions before day 15 of SA, were included. Primary outcome measures included rates of and time until RTW, productivity loss, and recurrences of SA. Results: We found limited available evidence on the benefits of "very early" workplace interventions in terms of RTW after a SA episode compared to usual care. Only three randomized controlled trials classed as high or intermediate quality were identified. Early part-time sick leave together with appropriate job modifications led to a reduction in the duration and recurrence of SA. There is evidence of benefit of intervening during the first two weeks of SA for musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: Our review has identified a lack of evidence from the literature at this time point to support "very early" intervention compared to usual care. The methodological design of the studies, notably the extent and timing of usual care provided and variable compliance/crossover between groups could however explain the lack of demonstrated benefit. Consensus is required on the definition of "early" and "very early" interventions, and further research is recommended to improve understanding of the factors influencing when and how best to intervene for maximum gain.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La vigilancia de la salud colectiva o epidemiológica (VSE) consiste en la recogida, análisis e interpretación sistemática de los datos de salud con la finalidad de proteger la salud y prevenir la enfermedad, y su difusión regular y rápida a todos los interesados1,2. En la práctica profesional de los servicios de prevención (SP) de nuestro entorno tiene importantes limitaciones, por lo que la Societat Catalana de Seguretat iMedicina del Treball (SCSMT) abordó sus bases teóricas en su XVI Diada (2006)3 y su aplicación en la práctica en la XXII Diada de 2012. Lejos de ser considerada un simple aprovechamiento epidemiológico de la vigilancia individual de la salud de los trabajadores, el equipo de la XXII Diada definió la VSE como la recopilación de datos epidemiológicos poblacionales de los daños derivados de los factores de riesgo con la finalidad de planificar y evaluar la prevención, requiriendo de indicadores de salud, sistemas de información, análisis epidemiológico, etc. La VSE permite identificar y cuantificar situaciones de salud en colectivos laborales para conocer sus necesidades de salud, evolución o tendencias, planificar, programar y evaluar intervenciones, e identificar nuevos riesgos, a través de indicadores elaborados en base a la información sobre el lugar de trabajo y la salud de los/as trabajadores/as, y que deben ser válidos, fiables, específicos, sensibles, prácticos, permitir comparaciones, precisando sistemas de información adecuados. Se resume aquí la mesa redonda de la XXII Diada SCSMT-2012 (Tabla 1), cuyo objetivo general fue identificar unos mínimos alcanzables en VSE por parte de los SP a partir de la presentación y discusión de experiencias prácticas.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is limited evidence of the role of working conditions as prognostic factors for non-work-related sickness absence (i.e. absence due to injuries or diseases of non-occupational origin). To analyse the association between working conditions and time to return to work (RTW) in workers with long-term (>15 days) non-work-related sickness absence. We followed up a total of 655 workers, who completed a baseline questionnaire including physical and psychosocial work factors, until their non-work-related long-term sickness absence ended. Time to RTW was determined based on the health insurance company register. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the associations between working conditions and time to RTW. A self-perceived high level of physical activity at work and work with back twisted or bent were related to longer duration of sickness absence. We did not find any strong evidence of associations between psychosocial work factors and time to RTW, although higher job insecurity and low reward showed marginal statistical significance. Hazardous physical working conditions are associated with longer duration of non-work-related sickness absence. Workplace ergonomic interventions could conceivably shorten the length of sickness absence that has not originated at work.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite suggestions that worker perception might be the best predictor of return to work (RTW), there still is limited research on time to RTW in workers with lengthy non-work-related sick leave. Prospective cohort study of 663 workers with a current long-term non-work-related sick leave episode recruited during the first medical visit in a mutua (Spanish health insurance company) and followed until their sick leave episode ended. Workers completed a baseline questionnaire regarding their perceptions of sick leave episode and expectations of RTW (i.e., health status, work ability, expectations and time required to RTW, self-efficacy and self-perceived connection between health and job). Time to RTW was established based on the mutua's register. Cox regression models were used to examine the associations of worker perception and expectation of RTW with time to RTW within the study population as a whole as well as in three diagnostic subgroups (i.e., musculoskeletal disorders, mental disorders and other physical conditions). As a whole, time to RTW was longer for workers reporting poor health [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71, 95%CI 0.59-0.85], extremely reduced work ability (HR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.53-0.88), a longer period of time required to RTW (HR = 0.36, 95%CI 0.25-0.52) and lack of expectation of returning to the same job (HR = 0.13, 95%CI 0.06-0.31). Workers with musculoskeletal and other physical conditions showed a similar pattern to whole study population, while workers with mental disorders did not. Self-required time and RTW expectations are important prognostic factors in sick listed workers by all types of health conditions certified as non-work-related. Questioning the workers on their perceptions and expectations of RTW during medical visits could help health care professionals to identify individuals at risk of long-term sickness absence and facilitate triage and management of the patient.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the association between organizational support and time to return to work (RTW) in workers with long-term non-work-related sick leave. Cohort participants were 571 workers, with a non-work-related sick leave episode of more than 15 days, recruited during the first visit in a health insurance company (mutua). Workers completed a baseline questionnaire regarding organizational RTW support measures and were followed until the end of the episodes. Return to work and time to RTW were established on the basis of the mutua's register. Multivariate Cox regression models were used. Workers in companies with an overall high organizational RTW support returned to work earlier. This effect was mainly due to workers in companies that provided specific RTW programs. Our findings suggest that companies play an important role in facilitating RTW for workers with long-term non-work-related sick leave episodes.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Spain, sick pay benefits for work-related sick leave episodes are higher than for non-work-related episodes. Our aim is to assess whether time to return to work is longer for higher paid sick leave episodes than for lower paid episodes. We used data from 62,376 work-related and 76,932 non-work-related sick leave episodes occurring among 338,226 workers from 56,099 companies in Spain in 2002. All episodes were followed for up to 18 months. Episodes were classified by a physician as being work- or non-work-related according to medico-legal judgments. The median episode duration and the 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated. The probability of remaining absent from work was estimated by a non-parametric estimator of the marginal survival function. The time ratio between both types of sick leave was estimated by a log-logistic regression model, using non-work-related episodes as the reference. Median episode duration (25th-75th percentiles) was 11 (6-21) days for work-related episodes and 9 (4-29) days for non-work-related episodes. Time to return to work was longer for work-related episodes than for non-work-related episodes of less than 16 days (time ratio: 1.19 in men and 1.08 in women), while the opposite was observed for episodes of more than 15 days (0.58 in men and 0.40 in women). Sick pay benefits have a limited effect on time to return to work after a sick leave episode.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fundamentos: Describir la duración de episodios incidentes de incapacidad temporal por contingencias comunes según la edad, el sexo, la actividad económica y la Comunidad Autónoma. Métodos: Incluimos 76.598 episodios de incapacidad temporal iniciados en 2002 en trabajadores afiliados al Régimen General de la Seguridad Social y gestionados por una Mutua de Accidentes de Trabajo y Enfermedad Profesional. La duración mediana y el rango intercuartílico fue estimada por sexo, edad, actividad económica y Comunidad Autónoma. La razón de probabilidad de seguir de baja (RPSB) entre Comunidades Autónomas se ajustó por sexo, edad y actividad económica, tomando Navarra como referencia, mediante un modelo de regresión log-logística con fragilidad gamma compartida. Resultados: El 25% de los sujetos habían vuelto al trabajo al 4º día, el 50% al 9º día y el 75% al 26º día. Extremadura (RPSB=2,7; IC95%:2,4 a 3,1) y Galicia (2,6; 2,4 a 2,9) presentaron las diferencias más elevadas respecto a Navarra. Conclusiones: La reincorporación al trabajo después de un episodio de incapacidad temporal es un proceso complejo que está influido, además de por la edad y el sexo, por la actividad económica y la Comunidad Autónoma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the duration of non-work related sickness absences incidents according to age, sex, economic activity and Autonomous Community. The sample of non-work related sick spells included 76,598 incident cases started in 2002 among workers cover by the general regime of the Social Security system, and managed by an insurance company. The median and intercuartils range were estimated by sex, age, economic activities and Autonomous Comunnity. Probability ratio of continuing out of work (PRCOW) were compared among Autonomous Comunities, after adjusting by sexo, age and economic activities, taking Navarra as reference, using a log-logistic regression model with a gamma distribution. The 25% of cases there were returned to work at 40 day, the 50% at 90 day; and the 75% at 26 degrees day. Extremadura (PCOW=2,7; IC95%: 2,4-3,1) and Galicia (2,6; 2,4-2,9) showed the highest differences with Navarra. There were also statistically significant differences among economic activities after adjusting by age and sex. Return to work after a non-work related sick spell is a complex process, which is influenced by age, sex, economic activities and autonomous community.