[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate has been implicated in both migraine and persistent pain. The identification of the kainate receptor GLU(K5) in dorsal root ganglia, the dorsal horn, and trigeminal ganglia makes it a target of interest for these indications. We examined the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of the competitive GLU(K5)-selective kainate receptor antagonist LY466195 [(3S,4aR,6S,8aR)-6-[[(2S)-2-carboxy-4,4-difluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-methyl]decahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid)], the most potent GLU(K5) antagonist described to date. Comparisons were made to the competitive GLU(K5)/alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist LY293558 [(3S,4aR,6R,8aR)-6-[2-(1(2)H-tetrazole-5-yl)ethyl]-decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid], other decahydroisoquinoline GLU(K5) receptor antagonists, and the noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist LY300168 [1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodi-azepine]. When characterized electrophysiologically in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, LY466195 antagonized kainate (30 microM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 0.045 +/- 0.011 microM. In HEK293 cells transfected with GLU(K5), GLU(K2)/GLU(K5), or GLU(K5)/GLU(K6) receptors, LY466195 produced IC50 values of 0.08 +/- 0.02, 0.34 +/- 0.17, and 0.07 +/- 0.02 microM, respectively. LY466195 was efficacious in a dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) model of migraine with an ID100 value of 100 microg/kg i.v. LY466195 was also efficacious in the c-fos migraine model, with a dose of 1 microg/kg i.v. significantly reducing the number of Fos-positive cells in the rat nucleus caudalis after electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion. Furthermore, LY466195 showed no contractile activity in the rabbit saphenous vein in vitro. The diethyl ester prodrug of LY466195 was also efficacious in the same PPE and c-fos models after oral administration at doses of 10 and 100 microg/kg, respectively while having no N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-like behavioral effects at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg.
Full-text Article · Sep 2006 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Recent developments in the molecular biology and pharmacology of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors have led to the discovery of selective, potent, and systemically active AMPA receptor potentiators. These molecules enhance synaptic transmission and play important roles in plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study, we first characterized a novel AMPA receptor potentiator, (R)-4'-[1-fluoro-1-methyl-2-(propane-2-sulfonylamino)-ethyl]-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid methylamide (LY503430), on recombinant human GLUA1-4 and native preparations in vitro and then evaluated the potential neuroprotective effects of the molecule in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Results indicated that submicromolar concentrations of LY503430 selectively enhanced glutamate-induced calcium influx into human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with human GLUA1, GLUA2, GLUA3, or GLUA4 AMPA receptors. The molecule also potentiated AMPA-mediated responses in native cortical, hippocampal, and substantia nigra neurons. We also report here that LY503430 provided dose-dependent functional and histological protection in animal models of Parkinson's disease. The neurotoxicity after unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine into either the substantia nigra or the striatum of rats and that after systemic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice were reduced. Interestingly, LY503430 also had neurotrophic actions on functional and histological outcomes when treatment was delayed until well after (6 or 14 days) the lesion was established. LY503430 also produced some increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the substantia nigra and a dose-dependent increases in growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression in the striatum. Therefore, we propose that AMPA receptor potentiators offer the potential of a new disease modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease.
Full-text Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Interest in kainate receptors has increased over the past few years. Our understanding of their physiology and pharmacology has improved markedly since their original cloning and expression in the early 1990s. For example, agonist profiles at recombinant kainate receptors have been used to identify and distinguish kainate receptors in neurons. Furthermore, the development of selective antagonists for kainate receptor subtypes has increased our understanding of the functional roles of kainate receptors in neurons and synaptic transmission. In this review we described the activity of agonists and antagonists at kainate receptors and their selectivity profiles at NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.
Article · Feb 2002 · Current Pharmaceutical Design
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present study describes the activity of two novel potent and selective AMPA receptor potentiator molecules LY392098 and LY404187. LY392098 and LY404187 enhance glutamate (100 microM) stimulated ion influx through recombinant homomeric human AMPA receptor ion channels, GluR1-4, with estimated EC(50) values of 1.77 microM (GluR1(i)), 0.22 microM (GluR2(i)), 0.56 microM (GluR2(o)), 1.89 microM (GluR3(i)) and 0.20 microM (GluR4(i)) for LY392098 and EC(50) values of 5.65 microM (GluR1(i)), 0.15 microM (GluR2(i)), 1.44 microM (GluR2(o)), 1.66 microM (GluR3(i)) and 0.21 microM (GluR4(i)) for LY404187. Neither compound affected ion influx in untransfected HEK293 cells or GluR transfected cells in the absence of glutamate. Both compounds were selective for activity at AMPA receptors, with no activity at human recombinant kainate receptors. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that glutamate (1 mM)-evoked inward currents in human GluR4 transfected HEK293 cells were potentiated by LY392098 and LY404187 at low concentrations (3-10 nM). In addition, both compounds removed glutamate-dependent desensitization of recombinant GluR4 AMPA receptors. These studies demonstrate that LY392098 and LY404187 allosterically potentiate responses mediated by human AMPA receptor ion channels expressed in HEK 293 cells in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The present study describes the pharmacological activity of two novel positive allosteric modulators at AMPA receptors in acutely isolated rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons and cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Currents elicited by application of glutamate (100 microM) to isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons were potentiated by LY392098, LY404187, cyclothiazide, CX516 and aniracetam. The rank order of potency was LY404187> LY392098> cyclothiazide > CX516> aniracetam. LY392098 displayed a higher maximal efficacy than the other compounds examined. AMPA-activated inward currents in cultured rat hippocampal neurons were potentiated by LY392098, LY404187 and cyclothiazide in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner although considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of response from cell to cell was observed. LY392098 was ineffective in potentiating AMPA receptor responses when dialyzed via the intracellular solution. The selectivity profiles of the two novel AMPA receptor potentiators were examined. LY392098 or LY404187 had minimal activity on NMDA receptor responses, on voltage-gated calcium channel currents in cultured hippocampal neurons and on GluR5 kainate receptor currents in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The ability of synapses to modify their synaptic strength in response to activity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and may be an essential component of learning and memory. There are three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptor, namely NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) and kainate receptors; critical roles in synaptic plasticity have been identified for two of these. Thus, at many synapses in the brain, transient activation of NMDA receptors leads to a persistent modification in the strength of synaptic transmission mediated by AMPA receptors. Here, to determine whether kainate receptors are involved in synaptic plasticity, we have used a new antagonist, LY382884 ((3S, 4aR, 6S, 8aR)-6-((4-carboxyphenyl)methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-decahydro isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid), which antagonizes kainate receptors at concentrations that do not affect AMPA or NMDA receptors. We find that LY382884 is a selective antagonist at neuronal kainate receptors containing the GluR5 subunit. It has no effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) that is dependent on NMDA receptors but prevents the induction of mossy fibre LTP, which is independent of NMDA receptors. Thus, kainate receptors can act as the induction trigger for long-term changes in synaptic transmission.