Myrto Petreas

California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA), Sacramento, California, United States

Are you Myrto Petreas?

Claim your profile

Publications (78)285.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alkyl- and aryl-esters of phosphoric acid (both halogenated and non-halogenated) are mainly used as flame retardants (FRs), among other applications, in furniture and consumer products and they are collectively known as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The absorption, biotransformation or elimination of many of these chemicals in humans and their possible health effects are not yet well known. A major reason for the limited information is the nature of these compounds, which causes several technical difficulties in their isolation and sensitive determination. A novel analytical liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the accurate and sensitive determination of four urinary OPFR metabolites:bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP), bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP), bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP), and diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), using mixed-mode solid phase extraction and isotope. For the first time all four analytes can be identified in one chromatographic run.An extensive investigation of method development parameters (enzymatic hydrolysis, matrix effects, process efficiency, sources of background interferences, linearity, accuracy, precision, stabilities and limits of detection and quantification) was performed in order to address previously reported method inconsistencies and select a process with the highest accuracy and sensitivity. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna C18 (2) (2.00 mm x 150 mm, 3 μm) with mobile phase 80:20 v/v water: MeOH and MeOH: water 95:5 v/v, both containing 1 mM tributylamine and 1 mM acetic acid. Limits of detection were 0.025 ng mL−1 for BDCIPP and BCIPP and 0.1 ng mL−1 for DPhP and BCEP. Absolute recoveries of all four analytes and their labeled compounds were in the range of 88-107%. The method was tested on 13 adult California urine samples. BCEP was detected at 0.4–15 ng mL−1 with a geometric mean (GM): 1.9 ng mL−1; BDCIPP at 0.5–7.3 ng mL−1, (GM: 2.5 ng mL−1) and DPhP at <MDL-5.6 ng mL−1, (GM: 1.7 ng mL−1). BCIPP was detected for the first time in US samples in 92.3% of the samples with two to three times lower values (range <MDL-3.5 ng mL−1 and GM: 0.4 ng mL−1) than the other OPFRs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • Weihong Guo · Stephen Gardner · Simon Yen · Myrto X Petreas · June-Soo Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we measured serum PBDE levels in California (CA) house cats during two time periods: 2008 - 2010 and 2012 - 2013 to assess the impacts of the decline in use of these materials after the bans. The median ∑19PBDE level in CA household cats (age ≥ 10 yr) was 3,479 ng/g lipid in 2008 - 2010 (1st time period, n = 21) and 1,518 ng/g lipid in 2012 - 2013 (2nd time period, n = 22), about 2 times lower than in the 1st time period (p = 0.006). In contrast, PCB and OCP levels showed no statistically significant changes. With better matched group size and age (HT = 11 vs. non-HT = 11, age ≥ 10 yr) in the 2nd time period, we found that Ʃ19PBDE level (mean ± S.E. ng/g lipid) was significantly higher in the HT group (3906 ± 1442) than those in the non-HT group (1125 ± 244) (p < 0.05). Higher levels of PCBs and OCPs were also found in HT group. Despite the declines of PBDE levels, our findings indicate that the current levels of PBDEs, as well as PCBs and OCPs may still pose health effects for house cats and, possibly, humans.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of the bans in reducing PBDE levels, we recruited 67 California first time mothers (sampled during 2009-2012) and collected cord blood at birth (n = 31), breast milk (n = 66) and maternal blood (n = 65) at 3-8 weeks postpartum. Using the same sample extraction procedures and analytical instrumentation method (GC-HRMS), we compared PBDE as well as PCB levels in these breast milk samples to those from our previous study (n = 82, sampled during 2003-2005) and found that the sum of PBDEs over the ∼7 year course declined by 39% (GeoMean = 67.8 ng/g lipid in 2003-2005; 41.5 ng/g lipid in 2009-2012) and that the sum of PCBs declined by 36% (GeoMean = 71.6 ng/g lipid in 2003-2005; 45.7 ng/g lipid in 2009-2012). This supports our earlier finding of a PBDE decline (39%) in blood. We also found that the PBDE concentrations and congener profiles were similar in breast milk and their matched maternal/cord blood: BDE-47 was the dominant congener, followed by BDE-153, -99, and -100. Similar levels and congener profiles of PBDEs in these matrices suggest that they are at equilibrium. Therefore, we propose that maternal serum levels may be used to predict an infant's daily dose of PBDE exposure from breastfeeding when breast milk levels are not available. In addition, our study confirmed that breastfeeding babies are still exposed to high levels of PBDEs, even though PBDE levels are decreasing.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Chemosphere
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated relationships between persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels in the blood of children with leukemia and POP levels in dust from their household vacuum cleaners. Blood and dust were collected from participants of the California Childhood Leukemia Study at various intervals from 1999-2007 and analyzed for two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and two organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Due to small blood sample volumes (100μL), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and BDE-153 were the only analytes with detection frequencies above 70%. For each analyte, depending on its detection frequency, a multivariable linear or logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between POP levels in blood and dust, adjusting for child's age, ethnicity, and breastfeeding duration; mother's country of origin; household annual income; and blood sampling date. In linear regression, concentrations of BDE-153 in blood and dust were positively associated; whereas, DDE concentrations in blood were positively associated with breastfeeding, maternal birth outside the U.S., and Hispanic ethnicity, but not with corresponding dust-DDE concentrations. The probability of PCB-153 detection in a child's blood was marginally associated with dust-PCB-153 concentrations (p=0.08) in logistic regression and significantly associated with breastfeeding. Our findings suggest that dust ingestion is a source of children's exposure to certain POPs.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to define AroER tri-screen's utility for identifying endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that target aromatase and/or estrogen receptor (ER), and to measure the total estrogenic activity in biological specimens. ER-positive, aromatase-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells were stably transfected with an estrogen responsive element (ERE)-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to yield a new high-throughput screening platform-the AroER tri-screen. AroER tri-screen was capable of identifying estrogen precursors, such as cortodoxone, which function as estrogens through a two-step conversion process in aromatase-expressing tissue. Furthermore, the system proved useful for assessing EDC activity in biologically relevant samples. Estimating these activities is critical because natural estrogens and estrogenic EDCs are important factors in ER-positive breast cancer risk. As our research demonstrates, incorporating functionally active aromatase into the AroER tri-screen produces a powerful and unique tool to (1) identify new EDCs targeting aromatase and/or ER; (2) discover novel EDCs activated by aromatase; and (3) estimate overall estrogenic activities in biological samples as a potential intermediate risk factor for breast cancer.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and may also experience chemical exposure in their fire stations. Dust samples from used vacuum cleaner bags were collected from 20 fire stations in California and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median dust concentrations were higher for PBDEs (e.g., 47,000 ng/g for BDE-209) than for PAHs (e.g., 220 ng/g for benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (e.g., 9.3 ng/g for PCB-180). BDE-209 concentrations in dust from California fire stations were among the highest of any previously documented homes or occupational settings in the world. We examined factors such as the frequency of emergency responses, the number of fire vehicles on site, and building age, but we could not account for the high levels of BDE-209 observed in fire station dust. Based on the findings of our pilot study, we hypothesize that possible sources of BDE-209 in fire stations include contaminated ash tracked back from fire events via boots, clothing, and other equipment as well as specialized equipment treated with BDE-209, including turnout gear and fire vehicles. We suggest possible follow-up studies to confirm these hypotheses.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this paper we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (Σ5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/g lipid, range = 18.8-714 ng/g lipid) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to US levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Science and Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through various routes, including consumption of contaminated food and accidental ingestion of settled dust. Objectives: We aimed to identify key routes of exposure to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in California women of reproductive age. Methods: Blood was collected from 48 mothers participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study from 2006 to 2007 and analyzed for POPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression models of natural-log transformed serum concentrations were used to identify determinants of exposure from available questionnaire information on dietary habits, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics, as well as vacuum cleaner dust-POP levels. Results: After adjusting for blood lipid levels, age, body mass index, cumulative lactation, and sampling date, serum concentrations of multiple major PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption, but not dust-PCB levels. After adjusting for blood lipid levels, Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and household annual income, serum concentrations of multiple major PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDE levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the relative contribution of specific exposure routes to total POP intake varies by chemical class, with dust being a relatively important source of PBDEs and diet being a relatively important source of PCBs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Environmental Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eleven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were analyzed in dust samples from California homes as a part of the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS) and from the living quarters of California fire stations as a part of the Firefighter Occupational Exposure (FOX) study using high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The eleven NBFRs were α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (α- and β-DBE-DBCH), 2-bromoallyl 2,3,6-tribromophenylether (BATE), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE). Six of the seven NBFRs that are produced in relatively small quantities (i.e., α-, β-DBE-DBCH, BATE, PBEB, PBT, TBP-DBPE) were measured close to or below the limit of quantitation (0.64ng/g) in both the NCCLS and FOX samples, and the seventh, HBB, was measured at median concentrations of 1.85ng/g and 9.40ng/g in the NCCLS and FOX samples, respectively. The remaining four NBFRs, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE, and DBDPE, are produced in higher quantities, and were detected at median concentrations of 337ng/g, 186ng/g, 22.3ng/g, and 82.8ng/g, respectively in the NCCLS samples, and at median concentrations of 2687ng/g, 2076ng/g, 28.4ng/g, and 161ng/g, respectively, in the FOX samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were several times lower than concentrations of PBDEs previously measured in the same samples. Concentrations of NBFRs in the NCCLS and FOX dust samples were generally comparable to concentrations of NBFRs in other studies of house dust from the US and Canada.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Environmental Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are formed from the oxidative metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans, rats and mice, but their quantitation in human blood and other matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques has been a challenge. In this study, a novel analytical method was developed and validated using only 250μL of human serum for the quantitation of twelve OH-PBDEs, fully chromatographically separated in a 15min analytical run. This method includes two novel approaches: an enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and a chromatographic separation using a mixed mode chromatography column. The enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was found critical for 4'-OH-BDE17, which was not detectable without it. For the sample clean up, a solid phase extraction protocol was developed and validated for the extraction of the 12 congeners from human serum. In addition, for the first time baseline resolution of two components was achieved that correspond to a single peak previously identified as 6'-OH-BDE99. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, limit of quantification, limit of detection, sample stability and overall efficiency. Recoveries (absolute and relative) ranged from 66 to 130% with relative standard deviations <21% for all analytes. Limit of detection and quantitation ranged from 4 to 90pgmL(-1) and 6-120pgmL(-1), respectively, with no carry over effects. This method was applied in ten commercially available human serum samples from the general US population. The mean values of the congeners detected in all samples are 4'-OH-BDE17 (34.2pgmL(-1)), 4-OH-BDE42 (33.9pgmL(-1)), 5-OH-BDE47 (17.5pgmL(-1)) and 4'-OH-BDE49 (12.4pgmL(-1)).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Chromatography A
  • W Guo · D Nelson · S Hurley · P Reynolds · T Guo · M Wang · J-S Park · M Petreas
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glass red top tubes (RTs), traditionally used to draw blood for biomonitoring studies, have some limitations during field sampling (e.g., tube breakage, timely processing may be difficult). This pilot study examined whether serum separation tubes (SSTs) with delayed processing time (48h) can be used instead of red top tubes (RTs) to accommodate field conditions. Using state-of-the-art methodologies, PBDEs, PCBs, OCPs, PFCs, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured to evaluate any differences among 2 test conditions (RTs with 2h processing time; SSTs with 48h processing time). Between the 2 test conditions, we observed high rank correlations among the measured compounds and no statistically significant differences in the levels of measured compounds. We conclude that SSTs with delayed processing time (48h) produce similar results as RTs with short processing time (2h), suggesting that SSTs could be good substitutes for RTs for new epidemiological and biomonitoring field studies. The use of SSTs offers a tremendous opportunity for the use of samples archived in various SSTs.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Chemosphere
  • Myrto Petreas · Jacob de Boer

    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Chemosphere
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We characterized the variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in residential dust. Vacuum cleaner samples were collected from 289 homes in the California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds from 2001 to 2010 and 15 PCBs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median concentrations of high-volume PCBs (i.e., PCBs 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 1.0-5.8 ng per g of dust in the first sampling round and from 0.8-3.4 ng/g in the second sampling round. For each of these eight PCBs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variation into regional variability (6-11%), intra-regional between-home variability (27-56%), within-home variability over time (18-52%), and within-sample variability (9-16%). In mixed-effects models, differences in PCB concentrations between homes were explained by home age, with older homes having higher PCB levels. Differences in PCB concentrations within homes were explained by decreasing time trends. Estimated half-lives ranged from 5-18 years, indicating that PCBs are removed very slowly from the indoor environment. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PCB exposures in studies of children's health.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can harm neurodevelopment in humans and animals. In 2003-2004, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were banned in California and phased-out of US production; resulting impacts on human exposures are unknown. We previously reported that median serum concentrations of PBDEs and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) among second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital (2008-2009; n = 25) were the highest among pregnant women worldwide. We recruited another cohort from the same clinic in 2011-2012 (n = 36) and now compare serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) (structurally similar compounds banned in 1979), and OH-PCBs between two demographically similar cohorts. Between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012, adjusted least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of ∑PBDEs decreased 65% (95% CI: 18, 130) from 90.0 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 64.7, 125.2) to 54.6 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 39.2, 76.2) (p = 0.004); ∑OH-PBDEs decreased 6-fold (p < 0.0001); and BDE-47, -99, and -100 declined more than BDE-153. There was a modest, nonsignificant (p = 0.13) decline in LSGM concentrations of ∑PCBs and minimal differences in ∑OH-PCBs between 2008-2009 and 2011-2012. PBDE exposures are likely declining due to regulatory action, but the relative stability in PCB exposures suggests PBDE exposures may eventually plateau and persist for decades.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • Tan Guo · Bruce Labelle · Myrto Petreas · June-Soo Park
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Concerns about the adverse health effects of ubiquitous flame retardants spurred our interest in the development of a sensitive and reliable analytical method for these toxic compounds in various sample matrices. This study focuses on the investigation of fragmentation pathways and the structures of target ions of thirteen new halogenated flame retardants. In this study, we use gas chromatography (GC)/high-resolution double-focusing sector mass spectrometry to characterize the fragmentation pathways of these new flame retardants. Along with the isotope patterns, accurate mass data were acquired to verify the molecular formula. The fragmentation pathways are classified based on the types of bond dissociations, e.g. σ-bond cleavage, α-bond cleavage and multiple-bond dissociations with a hydrogen shift. The α-bond dissociation occurs among 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE). The peak clusters that dominated ATE, BATE and hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) spectra correspond to two fragments as proved by accurate mass data and isotope patterns. These two fragments are formed as the result of two competing fragmentation pathways of radical loss and hydrogen shift. Fragmentation pathways of the other compounds are complex, involving cleavage of multiple bonds and hydrogen shifts. The accurate-mass-based GC/MS method offers great selectivity and sensitivity for quantitative analysis of the persistent organic pollutants. Thus, elucidation of the structures of the fragments is of prime importance for building an accurate-mass-based isotopic method. In addition, this study is useful for GC/MS/MS method development because multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions and product ions may be easily elucidated based on these fragmentation patterns. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 to 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1-2500ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0-11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17-50%), within-household variability over time (38-74%), and within-sample variability (0-23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children's health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Environment international
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants in the past three decades. These compounds are lipophilic and easily cross the placenta from pregnant woman to fetus. It is not clear whether hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), with greater hydrophilicity, have different concentrations in maternal and cord serum samples. We analyzed PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -209) and OH-PBDEs (6-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 5'-OH-BDE-99) in 20 pairs of maternal and cord serum samples collected in Cincinnati, OH in 2011. The geometric mean concentration of ƩOH-BDEs (the sum of four OH-PBDEs) was 49.76 pg/ml in cord sera, higher than 32.84 pg/ml in maternal sera. Similarly, cord serum total BDEs had a higher geometric mean than maternal serum (45.51 vs. 32.07 ng/g lipid). Equal or higher levels of total OH-BDEs and total BDEs in cord serum were observed in 85% and 80% of the mother-neonate pairs, respectively. The study suggests fetuses might receive higher OH-PBDE and PBDE exposure than their mothers.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Environmental Science & Technology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs. Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability. Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1–9%), intraregional between-household variability (24–48%), within-household variability over time (41–57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2–33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Environmental Health Perspectives
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors. OCPs cross the placenta; this prenatal exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to OCPs and gestational age and birth weight in 600 infants born between 1960 and 1963. The primary OCP was 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), its primary metabolite, 1,1'-dichloro-2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and the contaminant, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-ethane (o,p'-DDT). Regression analysis indicated that for each natural log unit increase in p,p'-DDT, birth weight increased by 274 grams (95% CI 122, 425) when controlling for p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDT. At a given level of p,p'-DDT exposure, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were associated with decreased birth weight. p,p'-DDE was negatively associated with length of gestation, controlling for p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. These findings suggest opposing associations between exposure to p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE and birth weight. We did not find evidence to support mediation by maternal thyroid hormone status nor that the association differed by sex.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Reproductive Toxicology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
285.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA)
      • Department of Toxic Substances Control
      Sacramento, California, United States
    • United States Environmental Protection Agency
      • Environmental Chemistry Laboratory
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2011
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Maine
      Orono, Minnesota, United States
  • 2004
    • San Francisco Department of Public Health
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1991
    • California Department of Health Care Services
      Sacramento, California, United States