[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) may cause hypertension, azotemia, episodes of flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure. Renal artery angioplasty and stenting was performed in 207 patients from 1991 to 1997. Thirty-nine of these patients (19%) underwent renal artery stenting for the control of recurrent episodes of congestive heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. All patients had angiographic evidence of severe (>70%) bilateral RAS (n = 18) or severe RAS to a solitary functioning kidney (n = 21).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Venous stasis ulcers (VSU) account for approximately 80-90% of lower extremity ulcerations. Given their prevalence and chronic nature, VSU are thought to impose a significant economic burden on Medicare (the USA's largest health insurance program) and other third party payers. However, comprehensive studies on the costs of VSU treatment are lacking. The objective of this study therefore was to examine comprehensively the direct medical costs of treating patients with a VSU in routine clinical practice. A cohort of 78 patients who presented with a VSU to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF), a large primary and tertiary referral center, was studied retrospectively. All inpatient and outpatient costs related to VSU treatment that were incurred during the year following VSU presentation or until the ulcer healed, whichever occurred first, were quantified. A total of 71 (91%) patients healed during the study. The average duration of follow-up was 119 days (median: 84 days). The average number of visits per patient was seven (range: 2 to 57). A total of 14 (18%) patients underwent 18 hospitalizations for VSU care. The average total medical cost per patient was $9685 (median: $3036). Home health care, hospitalizations and home dressing changes accounted for 48%, 25% and 21% of total costs, respectively. Total costs were related to duration of active therapy, ulcer size and the presence of at least one comorbidity (p<0.05). VSU are costly to manage, especially when time to healing is prolonged. The present findings reflect an underestimate of VSU costs since indirect costs were not examined. Time absent from work, forced early retirement, loss of functional independence and unquantifiable suffering may be additional factors that contribute to the overall burden of VSU.
Full-text · Article · Feb 1999 · Vascular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The initial and long-term results of angioplasty and primary stenting for the treatment of occlusive lesions involving the supra-aortic trunks were studied.
All patients in whom angioplasty and stenting of the supra-aortic trunks was attempted were included in a prospective registry. Results are, therefore, reported on an intent-to-treat basis. The preprocedural and postprocedural clinical records, arteriograms, and noninvasive vascular laboratory examinations of 83 patients (41 men [49.4%] and 42 women [50.6%]; mean age at intervention, 63 years) in whom endovascular repair of the subclavian (66, 75.9%), left common carotid (14, 16.1%), and innominate (7, 8.0%) arteries was attempted were retrospectively reviewed.
Initial technical success was achieved in 82 of 87 procedures (94.3%). The inability to cross 4 complete subclavian occlusions and the iatrogenic dissection of 1 common carotid artery lesion accounted for the 5 initial failures. Complications occurred in 17.8% of 73 subclavian and innominate procedures, including access-site bleeding in 6 and distal embolization in 2. Ischemic strokes occurred in 2 of 14 common carotid interventions (14.3%), both of which were performed in conjunction with ipsilateral carotid bifurcation endarterectomy. The 30-day mortality rate was 4.8% for the entire group. By means of life-table analysis, 84% of the subclavian and innominate interventions, including initial failures, remain patent by objective means at 35 months. No patients have required reintervention or surgical conversion for recurrence of symptoms. Of the 11 patients available for follow-up study who underwent common carotid interventions, 10 remain stroke-free at a mean of 14.3 months.
Angioplasty and primary stenting of the subclavian and innominate arteries can be performed with relative safety and expectations of satisfactory midterm success. Endovascular repair of common carotid artery lesions can be performed with a high degree of technical success, but should be approached with caution when performed in conjunction with ipsilateral bifurcation endarterectomy.
Preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of progression of the degree of carotid stenosis and to determine the risk of continued observation in a group of asymptomatic patients with moderate stenosis of at least one internal carotid artery. Between 1989 and 1994, 2130 patients were found to have 60-79% stenosis of at least one internal carotid artery following a duplex ultrasound examination in the authors' vascular laboratory. Of these, 465 patients (255 men, 210 women) were asymptomatic and had more than one ultrasound examination, and they form the basis of this retrospective review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports the initial and late results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and intravascular stenting for atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the iliac arteries.
The preprocedural and postprocedural clinical records, arteriograms, segmental limb pressure measurements (ankle-brachial [ABI] and thigh-brachial [TBI] indexes), and pulse volume recordings of 288 patients who underwent PTA and primary stenting of the common iliac (354, 69.4%) and external iliac (156, 30.6%) arteries were reviewed. Initial and late clinical, hemodynamic, and angiographic success were assessed by objective criteria. Data on patients who underwent unsuccessful attempts at iliac stent placement are unavailable; results are not reported on an intent-to-treat basis.
Clinical follow-up data (mean, 11.9 months) are available for 268 of 288 patients (93.1%) and for 394 of 424 limbs (92.9%). The initial success rates, as determined by TBI, ABI, and clinical limb status, were 90.2%, 87.8%, and 74.6%, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of angiographic patency (101 arteries) were 96%, 81%, and 73% at 6, 12, and 24 months. Cumulative patency rates were 84%, 76%, and 57% on the basis of TBI, ABI, and clinical limb status at 24 months. Factors associated with initial success included the need for multiple stents (p = 0.0001), a higher degree of initial stenosis (p = 0.0001), lower severity of baseline ischemia (p = 0.007), younger age (p = 0.0015), and the preprocedural patency of the ipsilateral superficial femoral artery (p = 0.002). A higher degree of initial stenosis (p < 0.001) and superficial femoral artery patency (p = 0.004) were also associated with late success.
PTA and stenting of the iliac arteries is associated with reasonable angiographic, hemodynamic, and clinical success. The outcome is favorably affected by higher initial severity of stenosis and greater extent of disease, lower severity of baseline ischemia, younger age, and by patency of the ipsilateral superficial femoral artery.
Preview · Article · Jun 1997 · Journal of Vascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of intravascular stents used to treat long-segment stenoses and occlusions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) after suboptimal angioplasty.
Fifty-eight limbs in 55 patients who underwent stenting of the SFA were identified from a vascular registry. Indications for stent placement after suboptimal PTA included flow-limiting dissection, residual pressure gradient (>15 mm Hg) or stenosis (>30%), or failure to establish initial patency. Lesion length ranged from 6 to 35 cm (mean, 16.5 cm). Endpoints for primary patency were: restenosis of >50%, reocclusion, or diminution of the postprocedure ankle-brachial index greater than 0.15.
The mean ankle-brachial index improved from 0.48 +/- 0.19 to 0.71 +/- 0.23 (p = 0.001). Primary patency rates by Kaplan-Meier estimates at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year were 88%, 47%, and 22%, respectively. Secondary patency rates were 94% at 1 month, 59% at 6 months, and 46% at 1 year. The median time to reaching an endpoint of restenosis or reocclusion was 6 months primarily and 9 months secondarily. Clinical improvement at the time of latest follow-up occurred in 56% of patients (mean, 13.8 months). Periprocedural complications occurred in 24.5% of patients with the first intervention. The only factor that favorably influenced outcome was improvement in clinical category after the procedure (p = 0.001).
There was a high incidence of restenosis and reocclusion with long-segment SFA disease that required stents to achieve initial success. Despite close surveillance and reintervention, anatomic patency at 1 year was poor. However, clinical benefit was maintained in the majority of patients. The outcome was similar in the claudication population compared with those who had limb-threatening ischemia. Percutaneous revascularization of long-segment SFA disease requiring stents should be reserved for patients with critical limb ischemia for which no reasonable surgical alternative exists.
Preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Journal of Vascular Surgery