[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In Colombia, cases of Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection have been officially described since 1985 mainly in Amerindian population from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (North Caribbean Coast), Uraba (North West), and Amazon (South East). The last official report of a clinical case of HDV infection in Colombia was registered in 2005.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to identify cases of HDV and/or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in asymptomatic Amerindians from Amazonas state, South East Colombia, and to describe the circulating viral genotypes in this population.
Study design: The study population was recruited in 19 Amerindian communities in the Amazonas state. Individuals over 18 years old were screened by rapid test for Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg). Blood
samples obtained from individuals positives for HBsAg in the rapid-test assay were analyzed for HBsAg,
anti-HBc, anti-HDV IgM/IgG by ELISA. The detection of HBV DNA and HDV RNA was performed by PCR
amplification. The viral genotype was determined by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: A total of 23/861 individuals were positive for HBsAg detection by rapid test. Serological and/or
molecular markers of HDV infection were demonstrated in 43.5 % (10/23) of samples from Amerindians. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the exclusive circulation of HBV subgenotype F1b of and HDV 3 in this population.
Conclusions: A high frequency of HBV/HDV infection was found in Amerindian population from Amazonas
State, Colombia (43.5 %, 10/23). Nine cases were identified in a population of 861 asymptomatic Amerindianindividuals; one symptomatic case (with diagnosis of end-stage hepatic disease) was also identified in the study. The circulation of HDV 3 and HBV subgenotype F1b suggests a constant flow of these viral genotypes as a result of the interaction of the Amerindian populations from Amazon basin. Further studies are necessaryto confirm whether HBV subgenotype F1b is the prevalent in the population from South East region in Colombia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for acute and chronic liver failure, for selected cases of tumors, and for conditions resulting from errors in metabolism. This paper reports the experience of a medical center in Latin America.
Were conducted 305 orthotopic liver transplantations on 284 patients between 2004 and 2010. Of these patients, 241 were adults undergoing their first transplantation.
The average age of patients was 52 years old, and 62% of the individuals were male. The most common indication was alcoholic cirrhosis. The rate of patient survival after 1 and 5 years was 82 and 72% respectively. The rate of liver graft survival after 1 and 5 years was 78 and 68% respectively. The main cause of death was sepsis. Complications in the hepatic artery were documented for 5% of the patients. Additionally, 14.5% of the patients had complications in the biliary tract. Infections were found in 41% of the individuals. Acute rejection was observed in 30% of the subjects, and chronic rejection in 3%.
In conclusion, liver transplantation at our medical center in Colombia offers good mid-term results, with a complication rate similar to that reported by other centers around the world.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the concordance and safety of induced sputum (IS) and spontaneous sputum (SS), and estimate concordance and time to detection of M. tuberculosis between Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), thin-layer agar (TLA), and the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube system (MGIT). Methods: This was a cohort study. Prisoners with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) were followed for 2 years. At baseline and every follow-up visit, three sputum samples were taken on consecutive days (one IS and two SS) and adverse events occurring before, during, and 30 min after IS were registered. All sputum samples were stained with auramine and cultured in LJ, TLA (to test resistance), and MGIT. Results: Five hundred eighty-six IS and 532 SS were performed on 64 PTB patients. Breathlessness (1.6%), cough (1.2%), hemoptysis (0.3%), and cyanosis (0.2%) were the only complications. Concordance between IS and SS was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.87); 11 positive cultures from IS samples were negative in SS, and 11 positive cultures from SS samples were negative in IS. One hundred seventy-eight cultures were positive by any technique: MGIT 95%, LJ 73%, and TLA 57%. Time to detection of M. tuberculosis in LJ, TLA, and MGIT was 31, 18, and 11 days, respectively. Conclusions: The IS procedure is safe in prisons. The MGIT system is better and faster than LJ and TLA in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY We simulated the frequency of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in order to classify the risk of TB transmission for nine hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. We used a risk assessment approach to estimate the average number of infections in three risk groups of a cohort of 1082 workers exposed to potentially infectious patients over 10- and 20-day periods. The risk level of the hospitals was classified according to TB prevalence: two of the hospitals were ranked as being of very high priority, six as high priority and one as low priority. Consistent results were obtained when the simulation was validated in two hospitals by studying 408 healthcare workers using interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing. The latent infection prevalence using laboratory tests was 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 34·3-47·7] and 44% (95% CI 36·4-51·0) in those hospitals, and in the simulation, it was 40·7% (95% CI 32·3-49·0) and 36% (95% CI 27·9-44·0), respectively. Simulation of risk may be useful as a tool to classify local and regional hospitals according to their risk of nosocomial TB transmission, and to facilitate the design of hospital infection control plans.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Epidemiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SETTING: Two prisons in Medellín and Itagüí, Colombia.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in prisoners and the annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI), to identify risk factors associated with a positive result,
and to describe progression to active disease.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Inmates were included if time of incarceration was 1 year and excluded if subjects had had previous or active tuberculosis (TB), or conditions that could hamper TST administration or interpretation.RESULTS:
We screened 1014 inmates. The overall prevalence of TST positivity was 77.6%. The first TST administration resulted in 66% positivity, and the second TST an additional 11.6%. In Prison One, the ARTI was 5.09% in high TB incidence cell blocks and 2.72% in low TB incidence blocks. In Prison
Two, the ARTI was 2.77%. Risk factors associated with TST positivity were history of previous incarceration and length of incarceration. Among all those included in the study, four individuals developed active pulmonary TB.CONCLUSION: Prevalence of TST positivity in prisoners and the ARTI
were higher than in the general population, but differed between prisons; it is important to apply a second TST to avoid an overestimation of converters during follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent virus of global importance; it is the etiological
agent of sporadic cases and outbreaks of hepatitis. The epidemiology of this infection in Colombia
Objective: To determine the seropositivity for hepatitis E virus in Colombia in cases with clinical
diagnosis of viral hepatitis.
Materials and methods: Serum samples from patients that were sent to the Instituto Nacional de
Salud during the period 2005-2010 (group 1) and samples sent to the Laboratorio Departamental de
Salud Pública de Antioquia during the 2008-2009 period were included in this study (group 2). Serum
samples were analyzed by immunoassay with commercial kits.
Results: From the 344 analyzed samples, 8.7% were positive for anti-HEV; the frequency of anti-
HEV IgM was 1.74% (6/344) and the frequency of anti-HEV IgG was 7.5% (26/344). A difference in frequency of anti-HEV between group 1 (6.3%) and group 2 (1.3%) was observed. The cases were
identified in nine departments of Colombia.
Conclusions: This is the first study of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with diagnosis of hepatitis
in Colombia. The frequency of anti-HEV described in this population of patients in Colombia is similar
to that described in other Latin American countries like Brazil, Perú and Uruguay. Considering the
results of this study, it could be necessary to include hepatitis E virus infection serological markers in
the differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis in Colombia.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Biomédica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world.
A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1).
This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medellín and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this sublineage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To determine the allelic and genotype frequencies of apolipoproteine E (APOE) gene in a representative sample of the adult population of Medellin in 2010.
A representative sample of the adult population of Medellin, was obtained by means of a multi-stage, stratified, conglomerate based sampling method. APOE genotyping was carried out on each of the participants. The sampling design was taken into consideration for the frequencies and association analysis.
The frequencies of the APOE alleles E2, E3 and E4 were 3.9, 92.0 and 4.1%, respectively. The frequencies of the different APOE genotypes were as follows: 2/2, 0.2%; 2/3, 6.8%; 2/4, 0.6%; 3/3, 85.0%; 3/4, 7.2%, and 4/4, 0.3%.
The allelic and genotype frequencies of APOE in an adult population of Medellin did not differ substantially from other series reported in South America. These data are important to determine the real impact of APOE on the population risk of several psychiatric diseases.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence and risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in a Colombian cohort of kidney transplant recipients. CMV infection and disease are important causes of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients, and its prevalence varies with economic, geographic, and ethnic factors. Among 1620 records from a Colombian reference center, CMV immunoglobulin (Ig)G seroprevalence was found to be 90.9% among recipients and 90.2% among donors. In 86% (n = 264) of the cases, CMV disease occurred during the first 6 months after the transplantation, and the most frequent clinical presentation was CMV syndrome, followed by gastrointestinal disease. The following parameters were independent predictors of CMV disease: serological status of D+/R+ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.63) and D+/R− (HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.49–4.93), age of the recipient (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03), and receiving more than 30 mg of prednisolone by the end of the first month after transplantation (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.22–2.07). Acyclovir prophylaxis or other antiviral agents significantly decreased the risk of disease (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.29–0.58 and HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.58, respectively). In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of CMV infection in a cohort of Latin American transplant recipients. In accord with findings from other regions, serological status is the main risk factor, prophylaxis with acyclovir is effective, and induction with alemtuzumab does not increase the risk of CMV disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in inmates, factors associated with TB, and the time to sputum smear and culture conversion during TB treatment.
Prospective cohort study. All prisoners with respiratory symptoms (RS) of any duration were evaluated. After participants signed consent forms, we collected three spontaneous sputum samples on consecutive days. We performed auramine-rhodamine staining, culturing with the thin-layer agar method, Löwestein-Jensen medium and MGIT, susceptibility testing for first-line drugs; and HIV testing. TB cases were followed, and the times to smear and culture conversion to negative were evaluated.
Of 9,507 prisoners held in four prisons between April/30/2010 and April/30/2012, among them 4,463 were screened, 1,305 were evaluated for TB because of the lower RS of any duration, and 72 were diagnosed with TB. The annual incidence was 505 cases/100,000 prisoners. Among TB cases, the median age was 30 years, 25% had <15 days of cough, 12.5% had a history of prior TB, and 40.3% had prior contact with a TB case. TB-HIV coinfection was diagnosed in three cases. History of prior TB, contact with a TB case, and being underweight were risk factors associated with TB. Overweight was a protective factor. Almost a quarter of TB cases were detected only by culture; three cases were isoniazid resistant, and two resistant to streptomycin. The median times to culture conversion was 59 days, and smear conversion was 33.
The TB incidence in prisons is 20 times higher than in the general Colombian population. TB should be considered in inmates with lower RS of any duration. Our data demonstrate that patients receiving adequate anti-TB treatment remain infectious for prolonged periods. These findings suggest that current recommendations regarding isolation of prisoners with TB should be reconsidered, and suggest the need for mycobacterial cultures during follow-up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elderly patients are the fastest growing population requiring renal replacement therapy. It has been stated that renal transplantation may be the best treatment option for these patients. However, it has been observed that older patients have a higher mortality rate than those who are younger. Yet the factors that determine post-transplantation outcomes in this population remain poorly defined. The aims of this study were to evaluate the graft and patient survival in kidney transplant recipients who are older than 60 years of age to identify relevant predictive factors.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Transplantation Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 million persons worldwide and is a public health problem. Considering that HCV is principally transmitted by exposure to infected blood, multi-transfused patients constitute one of the most important risk groups in developing countries. To explore the dynamics of this infection in Colombia, we performed a study to determine the genotypes of HCV in a cohort of multi-transfused patients.
The serum samples from patients positive for anti-HCV were evaluated for HCV RNA by nested-PCR of the 5’untranslated region (5’UTR). Viral genotype was determined by RFLP and/or automated sequencing. HCV subtype 1b was found in eight cases (66.7%) and subtype 1a in two cases (16.7%); seven isolates of subtype 1b were obtained from patients who had received the first transfusion before 1986. Either genotypes 2b (8.3%) or 3a (8.3%) were found in the remaining positive specimens.
This is the first HCV genotyping study developed in multi-transfused patients in Colombia where HCV subtype 1b was the most prevalent. The mutation G235A in the 5’UTR of three isolates generated an additional restriction site and an RFLP pattern different from those previously described for genotype 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), comparing it to a variation of this treatment that includes increased home-based guardian monitoring of patients (DOTS-R).
Taking a social perspective that includes the costs for the health institutions, the patients, and their family members, and for other entities that contribute to making operation of the program effective, the costs incurred with each of the two strategies were evaluated and the cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated adopting the measures of effect used by the control programs. The estimate of the cost of each of the two strategies includes the cost to the health institutions that administer treatment, the patients and their family members, and the cost to the Ministry of Health that manages public health programs on the municipal level. Based on these costs and the number of cases cured and treatments completed as outcome measures of each of the strategies evaluated, the cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental cost were calculated.
The DOTS-R was found to be more cost-effective for achievement of successful treatments than the DOTS. The DOTS-R recorded costs of US$ 1 122.40 to US$ 1 152.70 for each case cured compared to values of US$ 1 137.00 to US$ 1 494.30 for the DOTS. The percentage of cases treated successfully was higher with DOTS-R than with DOTS.
The DOTS-R is a promising cost-effective alternative for improved control of TB in endemic areas. It is recommended that the health authorities include home-based guardian monitoring of patients in their institutional management of the TB program, with the participation of health workers and the physical and financial resources that currently support this program.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Globally, the most important HCC risk factors are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and/or Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), chronic alcoholism, and dietary exposure to aflatoxins. We have described the epidemiological pattern of 202 HCC samples obtained from Colombian patients. Additionally we investigated HBV/HCV infections and
mutations in 49 of these HCC cases. HBV biomarkers were detected in 58.1% of the cases; HBV genotypes F and D were characterized in three of the samples. The HCV biomarker was detected in 37% of the samples while HBV/HCV coinfection was found in 19.2%. Among TP53 mutations, 10.5% occur at the common aflatoxin mutation hotspot, codon 249. No data regarding chronic alcoholism was available from the cases. In conclusion, in this first study of HCC and biomarkers in a Colombian population, the main HCC risk factor was HBV infection.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Hepatitis research and treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is lack of age-specific seroprevalence surveys and identification of factors associated with herpes simplex virus type-2
seropositivity (HSV-2) in rural populations in Colombia. A random sample of 869 women was interviewed about socio-demographic
aspects, sexual and reproductive history. Antibodies to HSV-2 were determined by a specific type immunoenzymatic technique
(ELISA). Participants had a mean age of 38 ± 16.1 years, 67% were married, 60% monogamous and 47% reported use of condoms.
HSV-2 seroprevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 16.6–21.9) and it was strongly associated with increasing age (Ptrend < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, women who reported between two or three lifetime sexual partners (OR = 2.4;
95% CI: 1.5–3.7), >31 years of sexual activity with regular or occasional sexual partners (OR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2–15.7) and
not using condoms with regular sexual partners (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.4–3.3) were more likely to be HSV-2 seropositive. The
overall seroprevalence rate of women of Pueblorrico, Colombia, is lower than that reported in other Latin American countries
especially in women >45 years. The difference may be explained by higher prevalence of condom use in this population or lower
exposure to herpes infection in male as well as females in the past.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNγ produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP), and assessed whether IFNγ levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development.