Lynn M Boyden

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (11)175.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Disorders of keratinization (DOK) show marked genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. In most cases, disease is primarily cutaneous, and further clinical evaluation is therefore rarely pursued. We have identified subjects with a novel DOK featuring erythrokeratodermia and initially-asymptomatic, progressive, potentially fatal cardiomyopathy, a finding not previously associated with erythrokeratodermia. We show that de novo missense mutations clustered tightly within a single spectrin repeat of DSP cause this novel cardio-cutaneous disorder, which we term erythrokeratodermia-cardiomyopathy (EKC) syndrome. We demonstrate that DSP mutations in our EKC syndrome subjects affect localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43 in the skin, and result in desmosome aggregation, widening of intercellular spaces, and lipid secretory defects. DSP encodes desmoplakin, a primary component of desmosomes, intercellular adhesion junctions most abundant in the epidermis and heart. Though mutations in DSP are known to cause other disorders, our cohort features the unique clinical finding of severe whole-body erythrokeratodermia, with distinct effects on localization of desmosomal proteins and connexin 43. These findings add a severe, previously undescribed syndrome featuring erythrokeratodermia and cardiomyopathy to the spectrum of disease caused by mutation in DSP, and identify a specific region of the protein critical to the pathobiology of EKC syndrome and to DSP function in the heart and skin.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic investigation of inherited skin disorders has informed understanding of skin self-renewal, differentiation, and barrier function. Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva (EKVP) is a rare, inherited skin disease characterized by transient figurate patches of erythema, localized or generalized scaling, and frequent palmoplantar keratoderma. By employing exome sequencing, we show that de novo missense mutations in GJA1 (gap junction protein alpha 1) cause EKVP. The severe, progressive skin disease in EKVP subjects with GJA1 mutations is distinct from limited cutaneous findings rarely found in the systemic disorder oculodentodigital dysplasia, also caused by dominant GJA1 mutations. GJA1 encodes connexin 43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed gap junction protein. We show that the GJA1 mutations in EKVP subjects lead to disruption of Cx43 membrane localization, and aggregation within the Golgi. These findings reveal a critical role for Cx43 in epidermal homeostasis, and provide evidence of organ-specific pathobiology resulting from different mutations within GJA1.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 14 November 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.485.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the RASA1 gene and characterized by multiple small, round to oval capillary malformations with or without arteriovenous malformations. Ateriovenous malformations occur in up to one-third of patients and may involve the brain and spine. Although making the diagnosis is straightforward in some patients, there are other patients for whom diagnostic criteria may be helpful in their evaluation. Here we review the literature regarding capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss the care of patients with this condition.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Pediatric Dermatology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: EN, epidermal nevi; KEN, keratinocytic epidermal nevi; LOH, loss of heterozygosity; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NS, nevus sebaceus
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension affects one billion people and is a principal reversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a rare Mendelian syndrome featuring hypertension, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis, has revealed previously unrecognized physiology orchestrating the balance between renal salt reabsorption and K(+) and H(+) excretion. Here we used exome sequencing to identify mutations in kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) or cullin 3 (CUL3) in PHAII patients from 41 unrelated families. KLHL3 mutations are either recessive or dominant, whereas CUL3 mutations are dominant and predominantly de novo. CUL3 and BTB-domain-containing kelch proteins such as KLHL3 are components of cullin-RING E3 ligase complexes that ubiquitinate substrates bound to kelch propeller domains. Dominant KLHL3 mutations are clustered in short segments within the kelch propeller and BTB domains implicated in substrate and cullin binding, respectively. Diverse CUL3 mutations all result in skipping of exon 9, producing an in-frame deletion. Because dominant KLHL3 and CUL3 mutations both phenocopy recessive loss-of-function KLHL3 mutations, they may abrogate ubiquitination of KLHL3 substrates. Disease features are reversed by thiazide diuretics, which inhibit the Na-Cl cotransporter in the distal nephron of the kidney; KLHL3 and CUL3 are expressed in this location, suggesting a mechanistic link between KLHL3 and CUL3 mutations, increased Na-Cl reabsorption, and disease pathogenesis. These findings demonstrate the utility of exome sequencing in disease gene identification despite the combined complexities of locus heterogeneity, mixed models of transmission and frequent de novo mutation, and establish a fundamental role for KLHL3 and CUL3 in blood pressure, K(+) and pH homeostasis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: αβ T-cell repertoire selection is mediated by peptide-MHC complexes presented by thymic epithelial or myeloid cells, and by lipid-CD1 complexes expressed by thymocytes. γδ T-cell repertoire selection, by contrast, is largely unresolved. Mice mutant for Skint-1, a unique Ig superfamily gene, do not develop canonical Vγ5Vδ1(+) dendritic epidermal T cells. This study shows that transgenic Skint-1, across a broad range of expression levels, precisely and selectively determines the Vγ5Vδ1(+) dendritic epidermal T-cell compartment. Skint-1 is expressed by medullary thymic epithelial cells, and unlike lipid-CD1 complexes, must be expressed by stromal cells to function efficiently. Its unusual transmembrane-cytoplasmic regions severely limit cell surface expression, yet increasing this or, conversely, retaining Skint1 intracellularly markedly compromises function. Each Skint1 domain appears nonredundant, including a unique decamer specifying IgV-domain processing. This investigation of Skint-1 biology points to complex events underpinning the positive selection of an intraepithelial γδ repertoire.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Richard P. Lifton · Lynn M. Boyden
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    ABSTRACT: Application of genetic approaches to human disease has led to the understanding of every area of disease pathophysiology by establishing causal links between specific genes and disease. Human traits attributable to single-gene variation typically show simple autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or sex-linked transmission. For a typical autosomal dominant disease, affected subjects harbor one wild-type(normal) allele and one disease-causing allele. Recessive diseases require that both alleles of a gene are mutant. These mutations are nearly always genetic loss of function, and, in such diseases, loss of function of both alleles must occur to produce disease. Most common diseases are multifactorial or complex, with contributions from a multiplicity of genes and/or environmental factors in individual subjects. These include almost all diseases commonly encountered in clinical medicine, including end-stage renal disease, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, asthma, autism, and schizophrenia. There are many different types of mutation that can alter the function of a gene. The most common mutations are single base substitutions in which one base pair is altered to another. All base changes can occur, though some occur more commonly than others such as transitions, consisting of purine-purine (A to G or G to A) or pyrimidine-pyrimidine (C to T or T to C) substitutions are more common than transversions, in which mutations alter a purine to a pyrimidine or vice versa. Mutations with functional effect are usually classified as genetic gain of function or loss of function. In complex cases, mutations can have gain of function effects on some traits and loss of function effects at others. Uncommonly, alleles can have dominant negativeeffects, in which the mutant allele impairs the function of the remaining wild-type allele.
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2009
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    ABSTRACT: B cells, alphabeta T cells and gammadelta T cells are conserved lymphocyte subtypes encoding their antigen receptors from somatically rearranged genes. alphabeta T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus by engagement of their T cell receptors (TCRs) with self-peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules. The molecules that select gammadelta T cells are unknown. Vgamma5+Vdelta1+ cells comprise 90% of mouse epidermal gammadelta T cells. By mapping and genetic complementation using a strain showing loss of Vgamma5+Vdelta1+ cells due to a failure of thymic selection, we show that this defect is caused by mutation in Skint1, a newly identified gene expressed in thymus and skin that encodes a protein with immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domains. Skint1 is the prototypic member of a rapidly evolving family of at least 11 genes in mouse, with greatest similarity to the butyrophilin genes. These findings define a new family of proteins mediating key epithelial-immune interactions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: To define the factors that control the tissue effects of IL-4, we compared the effects of Tg IL-4 in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. In the former, IL-4 caused modest eosinophilic inflammation and mild airway fibrosis and did not shorten survival. In C57BL/6 mice, IL-4 caused profound eosinophilic inflammation, airway fibrosis, emphysematous alveolar destruction, and premature death. These differences could not be accounted for by changes in Th2 or Th1 cytokines, receptor components, STAT6 activation, MMPs, or cathepsins. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, alveolar remodeling was associated with decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2, -3, and -4 and alpha1-antitrypsin, and fibrosis was associated with increased levels of total and bioactive TGF-beta1. Impressive differences in adenosine metabolism were also appreciated, with increased tissue adenosine levels and A(1), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptor expression and decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in C57BL/6 animals. Treatment with ADA also reduced the inflammation, fibrosis, and emphysematous destruction and improved the survival of C57BL/6 Tg animals. These studies demonstrate that genetic influences control IL-4 effector pathways in the murine lung. They also demonstrate that IL-4 has different effects on adenosine metabolism in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and that these differences contribute to the different responses that IL-4 induces in these inbred animals.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem of largely unknown cause. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene for low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), which acts in the Wnt signaling pathway, have been shown to cause osteoporosis-pseudoglioma. We performed genetic and biochemical analyses of a kindred with an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by high bone density, a wide and deep mandible, and torus palatinus. Genetic analysis revealed linkage of the syndrome to chromosome 11q12-13 (odds of linkage, >1 million to 1), an interval that contains LRP5. Affected members of the kindred had a mutation in this gene, with valine substituted for glycine at codon 171 (LRP5V171). This mutation segregated with the trait in the family and was absent in control subjects. The normal glycine lies in a so-called propeller motif that is highly conserved from fruit flies to humans. Markers of bone resorption were normal in the affected subjects, whereas markers of bone formation such as osteocalcin were markedly elevated. Levels of fibronectin, a known target of signaling by Wnt, a developmental protein, were also elevated. In vitro studies showed that the normal inhibition of Wnt signaling by another protein, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), was defective in the presence of LRP5V171 and that this resulted in increased signaling due to unopposed Wnt activity. The LRP5V171 mutation causes high bone density, with a thickened mandible and torus palatinus, by impairing the action of a normal antagonist of the Wnt pathway and thus increasing Wnt signaling. These findings demonstrate the role of altered LRP5 function in high bone mass and point to Dkk as a potential target for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.
    Preview · Article · May 2002 · New England Journal of Medicine