[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several evidences suggest that the position of palmitic acid (PA) in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) influences different biological functions. We aimed at evaluating whether dietary fat with highly enriched (87%) PA in sn-2 position (Hsn-2 PA), by increasing PA incorporation into tissue phospholipids (PL), modifies fatty acid profile and biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived bioactive lipids, such as endocannabinoids and their congeners.
Rats were fed for 5 weeks diets containing Hsn-2 PA or fat with PA randomly distributed in TAG with 18.8% PA in sn-2 position (Lsn-2 PA), and similar total PA concentration. Fatty acid profile in different lipid fractions, endocannabinoids and congeners were measured in intestine, liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle and brain.
Rats on Hsn-2 PA diet had lower levels of anandamide with concomitant increase of its congener palmitoylethanolamide and its precursor PA into visceral adipose tissue phospholipids. In addition, we found an increase of oleoylethanolamide, an avid PPAR alpha ligand, in liver, muscle and brain, associated to higher levels of its precursor oleic acid in liver and muscle, probably derived by elongation and further delta 9 desaturation of PA. Changes in endocannabinoids and congeners were associated to a decrease of circulating TNF alpha after LPS challenge, and to an improved feed efficiency.
Dietary Hsn-2 PA, by modifying endocannabinoids and congeners biosynthesis in different tissues may potentially concur in the physiological regulation of energy metabolism, brain function and body fat distribution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance.
To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance.
High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance. We assessed body weight and composition (pSABRE DEXA-scan), energy expenditure (Columbus Instruments) and insulin sensitivity at the end of the 12 weeks.
PSO intake resulted in a lower body weight, 30.5±2.9 vs 33.8±3.2 g PSO vs HFD respectively, p=0.02, without affecting food intake or energy expenditure. The lower body weight was fully explained by a decreased body fat mass, 3.3±2.3 vs 6.7±2.7 g for PSO and HFD fed mice, respectively, p=0.02. Insulin clamps showed that PSO did not affect liver insulin sensitivity but clearly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, 164±52% vs 92±24% for PSO and HFD fed mice respectively, p=0.01.
We conclude that dietary PSO ameliorates high-fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, independent of changes in food intake or energy expenditure.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 μM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.
CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05).
This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2008 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlling food intake by suppressing appetite can potentially be one of the principal approaches to preventing weight gain and obesity. A major gut hormone involved in appetite control is cholecystokinin (CCK), where previous experiments showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from Korean pine nuts (Pinus koraiensis) PinnoThin™ induces high amounts of CCK release by STC-1 enteroendocrine cells. This study investigates the effects of PinnoThin™ on appetite sensations and appetite-regulating hormones in humans. A randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed with 18 overweight post-menopausal women (BMI=25–30 kg/m2) receiving capsules with 3 g PinnoThin™ or olive oil (placebo) with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min following supplementation blood samples were taken for analyses of appetite suppressing hormones CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Appetite sensations were evaluated by using visual analogue scales. PinnoThin™ significantly induced CCK after 30 min and GLP-1 after 60 min relative to placebo. Over a period of 4 h the total amount of plasma CCK and GLP-1 in response to PinnoThin™ was 60% (P<0.0001) and 25% (P<0.05) higher than in response to placebo, respectively. PinnoThin™ affected appetite sensations during the 4 hours after intake. Especially, at 30 minutes the “desire to eat” and the “prospective food intake” scores were, 29% and 36% lower relative to placebo, respectively. PinnoThin™ significantly increased CCK and GLP-1 levels and affected appetite sensations, suggesting that PinnoThin™ may affect food intake. Further clinical work aimed at understanding the role of PinnoThin™ and satiety will be discussed.