[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and its leading gene excision-repair cross-complementary 1 (ERCC1) have been shown to be up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinomas even in the absence of treatment with chemotherapeutics. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism involved in NER regulation during the liver cell growth observed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Both NER activity and ERCC1 expression were increased after exposure to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cultured normal and tumoral human hepatocytes. These increases correlated with the activation of the kinase signaling pathway mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK that is known to be a key regulator in the G(1) phase of the hepatocyte cell cycle. Moreover, EGF-mediated activation of ERCC1 was specifically inhibited by either the addition of U0126, a MEK/ERK inhibitor or small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ERK2. Basal expression of ERCC1 was decreased in the presence of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor and small hairpin RNA (shRNA) against the PI3K pathway kinase FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein or mammalian target of rapamycin. Transient transfection of human hepatocytes with constructs containing different sizes of the 5'-flanking region of the ERCC1 gene upstream of the luciferase reporter gene showed an increase in luciferase activity in EGF-treated cells, which correlated with the presence of the nuclear transcription factor GATA-1 recognition sequence. The recruitment of GATA-1 was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. In conclusion, these results represent the first demonstration of an up-regulation of NER and ERCC1 in EGF-stimulated proliferating hepatocytes. The transcription factor GATA-1 plays an essential role in the induction of ERCC1 through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas the PI3K signaling pathway contributes to ERCC1 basal expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in the resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to chemotherapeutics. We investigated expression of several NER genes in human HCC and matching non-tumor tissue (NT) and in normal liver.
Expression of CSA, CSB, XPC, hHR23B, XPA, XPB, ERCC1 and p53 genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting in 26 HCC and 9 normal livers.
The seven NER genes and p53 were frequently overexpressed in HCC compared to matched NT. XPA, XPC, hHR23B and ERCC1 mRNA levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in HCC arising in cirrhotic livers compared to non fibrotic tissue. Moreover, expression of ERCC1, XPA and XPC mRNA was significantly augmented in HCC, even more in tumors arising in cirrhotic liver. ERCC1, XPC ad XPA mRNA levels were highly correlated in NT and HCC. XPC and ERCC1 protein levels were also increased in HCC.
Our findings strongly suggest that overexpression of two key genes involved in the early steps of the NER process, ERCC1 and XPC, is associated with liver fibrogenesis and cancer and could be related to the well recognized resistance of HCC to chemotherapeutics.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic changes in injured livers involve complex network of genes whose interplays may lead to fibrosis and cirrhosis, a major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene expression profiles in fibrotic livers were analyzed by using cDNA microarray, hierarchical clustering and gene ontology. Analyses of a major cluster of upregulated genes in cirrhosis identified a new set of genes involved in DNA repair and damage. The upregulation of DNA repair genes was confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and associated with necroinflammatory activity (P<0.001). Increased DNA repair activity in cirrhosis with inflammatory activity may reflect increased DNA damages as a consequence of chronic liver injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in various processes such as cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A induction after xenobiotic exposure. It is also considered to play a major role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent evidences have suggested a cross-talk between AhR functions and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. We now report that 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene (U0126), a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK) MEK1/2, elicits a marked increase in CYP1A1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels associated with a significant increase of enzyme activity in primary rat hepatocytes and a human hepatoma cell line. This induction occurred independently of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and in the absence of ERK1 and ERK2 expression. The effect of U0126 was mediated by its ability to transactivate xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-driven genes, as demonstrated by transfection assays with an XRE-driven luciferase construct in the human B16A2 hepatoma cell line. CYP1A1 modulation was abolished by a cotreatment with resveratrol, an established AhR antagonist, arguing for AhR activation by U0126. Such an effect was demonstrated by direct in vitro ligand binding competition assays using rabbit liver cytosol, showing that this compound binds AhR with an EC(50) = 25 x 10(-6) M. Moreover, we demonstrated that U0126 is a substrate for several P450s including human CYP1A2, -1A1, and -1B1. We conclude that the widely used specific inhibitor of MEK/ERK, U0126, also acts as a potent AhR activator and an inducer of related genes. Such effects on the AhR may have an impact on biological functions attributed previously to MAPK inhibition.
Preview · Article · May 2004 · Molecular Pharmacology