[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bimetallic nanoparticles are considered the next generation of nanocatalysts with increased stability and catalytic activity. Bio-supported synthesis of monometallic nanoparticles has been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional chemical and physical protocols. In this study we synthesize bimetallic bio-supported Pd-Au nanoparticles for the first time using microorganisms as support material. The synthesis involved two steps: (1) Formation of monometallic bio-supported Pd(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles on the surface of Cupriavidus necator cells, and (2) formation of bimetallic bio-supported nanoparticles by reduction of either Au(III) or Pd(II) on to the nanoparticles prepared in step one. Bio-supported monometallic Pd(0) or Au(0) nanoparticles were formed on the surface of C. necator by reduction of Pd(II) or Au(III) with formate. Addition of Au(III) or Pd(II) to the bio-supported particles resulted in increased particle size. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HR-TEM analyses indicated that the previously monometallic nanoparticles had become fully or partially covered by Au(0) or Pd(0), respectively. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analyses confirmed that the nanoparticles indeed were bimetallic. The bimetallic nanoparticles did not have a core-shell structure, but were superior to monometallic particles at reducing p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Hence, formation of microbially supported nanoparticles may be a cheap and environmentally friendly approach for production of bimetallic nanocatalysts.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of nanoparticles has greatly improved the catalytic properties of metals due to the higher surface to volume ratio of smaller particles. The production of nanoparticles is most commonly based on abiotic processes, but in the search for alternative protocols, bacterial cells have been identified as excellent scaffolds of nanoparticle nucleation, and bacteria have been successfully employed to recover and regenerate platinum group metals from industrial waste. We report on the formation of bio-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of two bacterial species with distinctly different surfaces: the gram positive Staphylococcus sciuri and the gram negative Cupriavidus necator. We investigated how the type of bacterium and the amount of biomass affected the size and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles formed. By increasing the biomass:Pd ratio, we could produce bio-supported Pd nanoparticles smaller than 10nm in diameter, whereas lower biomass:Pd ratios resulted in particles ranging from few to hundreds of nm. The bio-supported Pd nanoparticle catalytic properties were investigated towards the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction and hydrogenation reactions. Surprisingly, the smallest nanoparticles obtained at the highest biomass:Pd ratio showed no reactivity towards the test reactions. The lack of reactivity appears to be caused by thiol groups, which poison the catalyst by binding strongly to Pd. Different treatments intended to liberate particles from the biomass, such as burning or rinsing in acetone, did not re-establish their catalytic activity. Sulphur-free biomaterials should therefore be explored as more suitable scaffolds for Pd(0) nanoparticle formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing demand and limited natural resources for industrially important platinum-group metal (PGM) catalysts render the recovery from secondary sources such as industrial waste economically interesting. In the process of palladium (Pd) recovery, microorganisms have revealed a strong potential. Hitherto, bacteria with the property of dissimilatory metal reduction have been in focus, although the biochemical reactions linking enzymatic Pd(II) reduction and Pd(0) deposition have not yet been identified. In this study we investigated Pd(II) reduction with formate as the electron donor in the presence of Gram-negative bacteria with no documented capacity for reducing metals for energy production: Cupriavidus necator, Pseudomonas putida, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Only large and close-packed Pd(0) aggregates were formed in cell-free buffer solutions. Pd(II) reduction in the presence of bacteria resulted in smaller, well-suspended Pd(0) particles that were associated with the cells (called "bioPd(0)" in the following). Nanosize Pd(0) particles (3-30 nm) were only observed in the presence of bacteria, and particles in this size range were located in the periplasmic space. Pd(0) nanoparticles were still deposited on autoclaved cells of C. necator that had no hydrogenase activity, suggesting a hydrogenase-independent formation mechanism. The catalytic properties of Pd(0) and bioPd(0) were determined by the amount of hydrogen released in a reaction with hypophosphite. Generally, bioPd(0) demonstrated a lower level of activity than the Pd(0) control, possibly due to the inaccessibility of the Pd(0) fraction embedded in the cell envelope. Our results demonstrate the suitability of bacterial cells for the recovery of Pd(0), and formation and immobilization of Pd(0) nanoparticles inside the cell envelope. However, procedures to make periplasmic Pd(0) catalytically accessible need to be developed for future nanobiotechnological applications.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Biotechnology and Bioengineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From waste!! Gram-negative bacteria from the genus Cupriavidus can serve as a scaffold for the absorption and reduction of palladium(II) contained in industrial waste solutions. The resulting cell-supported palladium(0) nanoparticles were active for catalysis of C-C bond formation. This method offers an economically competitive source of palladium(0) via recovery from metal-containing waste.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles from ions has recently emerged as a novel technique for an environmentally benign recovery of heavy metals. Bacteria are known to recover palladium(0) in the form of nanoparticles that are catalytically active. However, the extent of the reactions that can be catalysed by bio-recovered palladium has not been investigated. This study demonstrates that the Suzuki–Miyaura and Mizoroki–Heck reactions can be catalysed by bio-generated palladium nanoparticles formed on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. The results suggest that the range of applications of this catalyst can be extended to the realm of carbon–carbon bond formation in synthetic organic chemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: General reaction conditions were developed for the Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction of aryl boronic acids with a simple electrophilic vinylation reagent, vinyl tosylate, providing access to styrene derivatives in good yields. The easily accessible vinyl tosylate represents a stable and less toxic alternative to the vinyl halides and the triflate/nonaflate derivatives. Furthermore, this methodology was expanded to provide a facile and straightforward approach for the introduction of a gem-difluorovinyl substituent onto an aromatic ring using the similar and also readily available 2,2-difluorovinyl tosylate as the electrophilic complement.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Journal of Organic Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The styryl benzene derivative (E, E)-1-fluoro-2,5-bis(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (FSB), well-known for its binding to beta-amyloid peptide fibrils, was synthesized in an efficient manner exploiting two sequential palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling reactions in a 34% overall yield. This is a substantial improvement to the previously reported synthesis of FSB in 1.1%.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · The Journal of Organic Chemistry