[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan (CS)-Zn on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function in weanling pigs. A total of 150 weanling barrows with a body weight of 7·2 kg were randomly allocated into five groups. A basal diet without Zn supplementation was used as the control and other four groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 50 or 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn, 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. The results showed that serum diamine oxidase activities, d-lactate levels and endotoxin contents were lower in pigs fed dietary 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control or 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4 diet. The ratios of the villus height:crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher in pigs that received 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or a high level of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control diet. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL)-stained ileal epithelial cells were found in the control group, and apoptotic cells did not appear prominently in pigs that received the 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO diet. Secretory IgA concentration in ileal mucus was increased in the dietary group that received 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO. These results indicated that dietary 100 mg CS-Zn/kg had similar biological effects to dietary 3000 mg ZnO/kg on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The British journal of nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus niger AS 3.4309 was carried out under Solid State Fermentation (SSF). The effects of medium composition and incubation conditions on the enzyme activity were investigated and suitable solid medium components and optimum incubation conditions for fermentation process were therefore established. The maximum β-glucosidase production (508 U g -1 dry matter) occurred after 72 h of incubation at 28°C in optimized solid medium containing wheat bran 100%, ammonium chloride 2%, MgSO 4·7H 2O 0.5% and KH 2PO 4 1.5% at the optimal conditions including moisture content of solid substrate 70% (w/w) initial pH 6.0 and inoculum level at 1 × l0 7 spores g -1 of solid substrate.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of zinc on growth performance, activities of enzymes, and concentrations of hormones were investigated in this study. Crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Large White) piglets (initial body weight: 26.66 +/- 2.45 kg) were randomly assigned into 4 groups receiving a basal diet and were supplemented with 60, 300, 1000, or 3000 mg/kg of zinc (as ZnSO4 center dot 7H2O). The results showed that supplementation of zinc at 3000 mg/kg increased (P < 0.05) the average daily feed intake, weight gain, gain/feed, and relative organ weight, and promoted the activities of alkaline phosphatase and Cu-Zn superoxide (P < 0.05) by 84.17% and 49.86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. It also led to higher hepatic metallothionein content and tissue zinc concentration (P < 0.05) than in the control group. Furthermore, the concentrations of insulin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the 3000 mg/kg group were increased (P < 0.05) by 55.19% and 26.53%, respectively, compared to the control group. The present study suggests that pharmacological dietary supplementation of zinc increased growth performance, activities of enzymes, tissue zinc concentrations, and plasma insulin and NPY concentrations.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distribution and properties of the main digestive enzymes including protease and amylase, from stomach, pancreas and the anterior, middle and posterior intestine of the adult red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans were studied at various pHs and temperatures. The optimum temperature and pH for protease in stomach, pancreas and the anterior, middle and posterior intestine were 40 degrees C, 2.5; 50 degrees C, 8.0; 50 degrees C, 7.0; 50 degrees C, 8.0; and 50 degrees C, 8.5; respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for amylase in stomach, pancreas and anterior, middle and posterior intestine were 40 degrees C, 8.0; 30 degrees C, 7.5; 40 degrees C, 7.0; 50 degrees C, 8.0; and 50 degrees C, 8.0; respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the order of protease activity from high to low was of pancreas, stomach and the anterior, posterior and middle intestine; the activity of amylase in descending order was of anterior intestine, pancreas, posterior intestine, middle intestine and stomach.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated effects of zinc on the hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidant components and mRNA expression levels in rats.
Three diets with different Zn levels including Zn adequacy (ZA; 34.50 mg/kg, control), Zn deficiency (ZD; 3.30 mg/kg), and Zn overdose (ZO; 345.45 mg/kg) were fed to rats for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by cDNA microarrays.
The body weight of rats fed the ZD diet was less (p < 0.01) than that of rats fed the ZA diet. Zn overdose elevated body weight, but the increase was not detected (p > 0.05) at week 6. Although copper and iron status in serum were declined (p < 0.01), those in liver were not affected (p > 0.05) by the high intake of zinc. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) remained unchanged (p > 0.05) by zinc treatment. Rats fed the ZD diet showed reductions(p < 0.01) in the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increases (p < 0.01) in the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contents. Rats fed the ZO diet particularly had higher Cu-Zn SOD (p < 0.01) activity. The mRNA expression levels of SOD were upregulated in the ZO group, and CAT was downregulated in the ZD group, while no changes in GPx mRNA levels were found after zinc treatment.
The study suggested that zinc deficiency largely decreased body weight; zinc overdose, however, moderately stimulated growth in the early growing phase of rats. High dietary zinc did not compete with liver copper and iron status. Although Zn deficiency impaired antioxidant functions, zinc overdose hardly enhanced the antioxidant systems of animals.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mature peptide of Thermomonospora fusca xylanase A (TfxA) was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of AOX1 promoter. The activity of recombinant T. fusca xylanase A (reTfxA) in culture supernatant was 117.3 ± 2.4 U/mg, which is 3 times higher than that of the native TfxA. The optimal temperature and pH for reTfxA were 60 °C and 6.0, respectively. When treated at 70 °C and pH 6.0 for 2 min, the residual activity of the reTfxA was 70%. The reTfxA was very stable over a wide pH range (5.0–9.0). After incubation over pH 5.0–9.0 at 25 °C for 1 h, all the residual activity of reTfxA was over 80%. The Km and kcat values for reTfxA were 2.45 mg/ml and 139 s−1, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed that xylobiose (X2) was the main hydrolysis product released from birchwood xylan and wheat bran insoluble xylan by reTfxA. Hydrolysis results of xylooligosaccharides showed that reTfxA was an endo-acting xylanase and xylobiose, xylotriose (X3), xylotetraose (X4), xylopentaose (X5), and xylohexaose (X6) could be hydrolysed. This is the first report on the expression of reTfxA in yeast and on the determining and quantifying of the hydrolysis products released from xylans and xylooligosaccharides by reTfxA.