[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK cell activation is controlled by the integration of signals from cytokine receptors and germline-encoded activation and inhibitory receptors. NK cells undergo two distinct phases of activation during murine CMV (MCMV) infection: a nonselective phase mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and a specific phase driven by signaling through Ly49H, an NK cell activation receptor that recognizes infected cells. We sought to delineate cell surface markers that could distinguish NK cells that had been activated nonselectively from those that had been specifically activated through NK cell receptors. We demonstrated that stem cell Ag 1 (Sca-1) is highly upregulated during viral infections (to an even greater extent than CD69) and serves as a novel marker of early, nonselective NK cell activation. Indeed, a greater proportion of Sca-1(+) NK cells produced IFN-γ compared with Sca-1(-) NK cells during MCMV infection. In contrast to the universal upregulation of Sca-1 (as well as KLRG1) on NK cells early during MCMV infection, differential expression of Sca-1, as well as CD27 and KLRG1, was observed on Ly49H(+) and Ly49H(-) NK cells late during MCMV infection. Persistently elevated levels of KLRG1 in the context of downregulation of Sca-1 and CD27 were observed on NK cells that expressed Ly49H. Furthermore, the differential expression patterns of these cell surface markers were dependent on Ly49H recognition of its ligand and did not occur solely as a result of cellular proliferation. These findings demonstrate that a combination of Sca-1, CD27, and KLRG1 can distinguish NK cells nonselectively activated by cytokines from those specifically stimulated through activation receptors.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK-cell killing requires both the expression of activating receptor ligands and low MHC class I expression by target cells. Here we demonstrate that the expression of any of the murine ligands for the NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D results in a concomitant reduction in MHC class I expression. We show this both in tumor cell lines and in vivo. NK-cell lysis is enhanced by the decrease in MHC class I expression, suggesting the change is biologically relevant. These results demonstrate that NKG2D ligand expression on target cells not only allows for activating receptor recognition, but also actively reduces expression of the inhibitory ligand, MHC class I, leading to enhanced recognition and killing by NK cells.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine models suggest that natural killer (NK) cells are important for normal implantation site development, in part, through the production of interferon gamma (IFNG). As KLRK1 (NKG2D) is expressed on human and murine uterine NK (uNK) cells, we examined the role of KLRK1 in the interaction between murine trophoblasts and NK cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that both murine trophoblast stem (TS) cells and differentiated trophoblast giant cells expressed the KLRK1 ligand retinoic acid early transcript 1, or RAET1. Coculture of activated NK cells with either TS cells or giant cells led to the production of IFNG, as measured by ELISA. In addition, coculture with TS cells led to the downregulation of KLRK1. Both responses were inhibited by soluble KLRK1 ligand, but not by irrelevant protein. Further studies demonstrated the presence of KLRK1 ligand on uterine cells derived from either virgin or pregnant mice, although uterine RAET1 protein expression was upregulated in vitro by progesterone, but not estradiol. We suggest that the interaction of KLRK1 and RAET1 may be involved in IFNG production by uNK cells, and thus, this receptor-ligand pair may contribute to successful murine implantation site development.
Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Biology of Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under selective pressure from host immunity, viruses have retained genes encoding immunoevasins, molecules interfering with host viral recognition and clearance. Due to their binding specificities, immunoevasins can be exploited as affinity labels to identify host-encoded molecules of previously unsuspected importance in defense against the relevant class of virus. We previously described an orthopoxvirus MHC class I-like protein (OMCP) that binds with high affinity to the activating receptor NKG2D on NK and T cell subsets, implicating NKG2D in antiorthopoxvirus immunity. In this study, we report that OMCP also binds in an NKG2D-independent manner to B cells and monocytes/macrophages. We identify murine FcR-like 5 (FCRL5), an orphan immunoregulatory protein highly expressed by innate B lymphocytes, as a specific receptor for OMCP. The three N-terminal Ig domains of FCRL5 are required for OMCP binding. The targeting of FCRL5 by an orthopoxvirus immunoevasin strongly implicates it in contributing to host defense against zoonotic orthopoxviruses.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NKG2D receptor is one of the most potent activating natural killer cell receptors involved in antiviral responses. The
mouse NKG2D ligands MULT-1, RAE-1, and H60 are regulated by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) proteins m145, m152, and m155, respectively.
In addition, the m138 protein interferes with the expression of both MULT-1 and H60. We show here that one of five RAE-1 isoforms,
RAE-1δ, is resistant to downregulation by MCMV and that this escape has functional importance in vivo. Although m152 retained
newly synthesized RAE-1δ and RAE-1γ in the endoplasmic reticulum, no viral regulator was able to affect the mature RAE-1δ
form which remains expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. This differential susceptibility to downregulation by MCMV
is not a consequence of faster maturation of RAE-1δ compared to RAE-1γ but rather an intrinsic property of the mature surface-resident
protein. This difference can be attributed to the absence of a PLWY motif from RAE-1δ. Altogether, these findings provide
evidence for a novel mechanism of host escape from viral immunoevasion of NKG2D-dependent control.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunodeficient mice serve as critical hosts for transplantation of xenogeneic cells for in vivo analysis of various biological processes. Because investigators typically select one or two immunodeficient mouse strains as recipients, no comprehensive study has been published documenting differences in human tumor engraftment. Taking advantage of the increased metastatic potential of RhoC-expressing human (A375) melanoma cells, we evaluate four immunodeficient mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficiency (scid), nonobese diabetic (NOD)-scid, NOD-scid beta2m(null), and NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) as xenograft tumor recipients.
Bioluminescence, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology were used to monitor serial tumor growth. Natural killer (NK) cell function was examined in each mouse strain using standard (51)Chromium release assays.
Melanoma metastases growth is delayed and variable in scid and NOD-scid mice. In contrast, NOD-scid beta2m(null) and NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) mice show rapid tumor engraftment, although tumor growth is variable in NOD-scid beta2m(null) mice. NK cells were detected in all strains except NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null), and in vitro activated scid, NOD-scid, and NOD-scid beta2m(null) NK cells kill human melanoma lines and primary melanoma cells. Expression of human NKG2D ligands MHC class I chain-related A and B molecules renders melanoma susceptible to murine NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and killing is inhibited by antibody blockade of murine NKG2D.
Murine NKG2D recognition of MICA/B is an important receptor-ligand interaction used by NK cells in immunodeficient strains to limit engraftment of human tumors. The absolute NK deficiency in NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) animals makes this strain an excellent recipient of melanoma and potentially other human malignancies.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Automatic identification of structure fingerprints from a group of diverse protein structures is challenging, especially for proteins whose divergent amino acid sequences may fall into the "twilight-" or "midnight-" zones where pair-wise sequence identities to known sequences fall below 25% and sequence-based functional annotations often fail.
Here we report a novel graph database mining method and demonstrate its application to protein structure pattern identification and structure classification. The biologic motivation of our study is to recognize common structure patterns in "immunoevasins", proteins mediating virus evasion of host immune defense. Our experimental study, using both viral and non-viral proteins, demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed method.
We present a theoretic framework, offer a practical software implementation for incorporating prior domain knowledge, such as substitution matrices as studied here, and devise an efficient algorithm to identify approximate matched frequent subgraphs. By doing so, we significantly expanded the analytical power of sophisticated data mining algorithms in dealing with large volume of complicated and noisy protein structure data. And without loss of generality, choice of appropriate compatibility matrices allows our method to be easily employed in domains where subgraph labels have some uncertainty.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NKG2D receptor is one of the most potent activating natural killer cell receptors involved in antiviral responses. The mouse NKG2D ligands MULT-1, RAE-1, and H60 are regulated by murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) proteins m145, m152, and m155, respectively. In addition, the m138 protein interferes with the expression of both MULT-1 and H60. We show here that one of five RAE-1 isoforms, RAE-1δ, is resistant to downregulation by MCMV and that this escape has functional importance in vivo. Although m152 retained newly synthesized RAE-1δ and RAE-1γ in the endoplasmic reticulum, no viral regulator was able to affect the mature RAE-1δ form which remains expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. This differential susceptibility to downregulation by MCMV is not a consequence of faster maturation of RAE-1δ compared to RAE-1γ but rather an intrinsic property of the mature surface-resident protein. This difference can be attributed to the absence of a PLWY motif from RAE-1δ. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for a novel mechanism of host escape from viral immunoevasion of NKG2D-dependent control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK and T lymphocytes express both activating and inhibiting receptors for various members of the major histocompatibility complex class I superfamily (MHCISF). To evade immunologic cytotoxicity, many viruses interfere with the function of these receptors, generally by altering the displayed profile of MHCISF proteins on host cells. Using a structurally constrained hidden Markov model, we discovered an orthopoxvirus protein, itself distantly class I-like, that acts as a competitive antagonist of the NKG2D activating receptor. This orthopoxvirus MHC class I-like protein (OMCP) is conserved among cowpox and monkeypox viruses, secreted by infected cells, and bound with high affinity by NKG2D of rodents and humans (K(D) approximately 30 and 0.2 nM, respectively). OMCP blocks recognition of host-encoded ligands and inhibits NKG2D-dependent killing by NK cells. This finding represents a novel mechanism for viral interference with NKG2D and sheds light on intercellular recognition events underlying innate immunity against emerging orthopoxviruses.
Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we show that IFN-gamma or IFN-alpha reduce expression of H60 on 3'-methylcholanthrene (MCA) sarcomas from 129/Sv mice. As determined by flow cytometry using either NKG2D tetramers or NKG2D ligand-specific mAb, H60 was identified as the NKG2D ligand most frequently expressed on these sarcomas, and its expression was selectively down-regulated by either IFN-gamma or IFN-alpha in a manner that was dose- and time-dependent and reversible. Down-regulation occurred at the transcript level and was STAT1-dependent. It also had functional consequences. IFN-gamma-treated MCA sarcomas with high levels of H60 were resistant to killing by IL-2-activated NK cells. Resistance was not solely dependent on enhanced MHC class I expression but rather also required H60 down-regulation. IFN-gamma-treated tumor cells also displayed diminished capacity to down-regulate NKG2D on freshly isolated NK cells. Transplanted tumor cells reisolated from immunocompetent mice displayed reduced H60 expression and increased MHC class I expression compared with tumor cells that were either left unmanipulated or reisolated from mice treated with neutralizing IFN-gamma-specific mAb. This report thus represents the first demonstration that certain cytokines and specifically the IFNs regulate expression of specific NKG2D ligands on murine tumors. This process most likely helps to specify the type of immune effector cell populations that participate in host-protective antitumor responses.
Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have demonstrated that the NK cell activating receptor NKG2D can function as a costimulatory receptor for both mouse and human CD8+ T cells. However, it has recently been suggested that stimulation through NKG2D is insufficient for costimulation of CD8+ T cells. To aid in the delineation of NKG2D function in CTL responses, we investigated whether stimulation of NKG2D by the natural ligand RAE1epsilon was able to costimulate effector functions of a murine CTL line generated from DUC18 TCR transgenic mice. We found that NKG2D was able to costimulate DUC CTL responses and did so in a manner similar to CD28 costimulation. The T cells exhibited increased proliferation, IFN-gamma release, and cytotoxicity when presented antigenic peptide by P815 cells expressing RAE1epsilon or B7-1 compared with untransfected P815. In addition, both RAE1epsilon and B7-1 enhanced Ag-independent IFN-gamma secretion in response to IL-12 and IL-18 by DUC CTL. However, only costimulation through CD28 allowed for DUC CTL survival upon secondary stimulation, whereas ligation of NKG2D, but not CD28, induced DUC CTL to form an immune synapse with target cells in the absence of TCR stimulation. Understanding the outcomes of these differences may allow for a better understanding of T cell costimulation in general.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under the influence of cytokines associated with innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells rapidly become activated and migrate to sites of infection. Upon contact with infected parenchyma they proliferate, release cytokines and/or kill cells harboring pathogens. Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory receptors can provide the integrated signals that trigger this contact-mediated NK-cell function. Recent work has begun to define the ligands for these receptors in the context of infection by certain well-studied viruses. These results, in addition to future work involving other pathogens, will provide an understanding of the molecules present on parasitized cells that mark them as targets of innate immunity.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Current Opinion in Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine NKG2D is known to recognize H60 and five RAE1 variants. The human homologue recognizes both inducible MHC class I chain-related gene and constitutive (UL16-binding protein (ULBP)) ligands. Widely expressed, the latter are thought to mark transformed or infected cells for destruction by NK cells in the context of down-regulated cell surface class I (i.e., the "missing self"-response). Unlike MIC and ULBP however, mRNA for the murine ligands appears only in very limited contexts in the mature animal. In this study, we describe a NKG2D ligand termed "murine ULBP-like transcript 1 (MULT1) whose mRNA appears to be widely expressed in adult parenchyma. This molecule possesses MHC class I-like alpha1 and alpha2 domains as well as a large cytoplasmic domain. Recombinant MULT1 binds NKG2D with relatively high affinity (K(D) approximately 6 nM) and low k(off) (approximately 0.006s(-1)). Expression of MULT1 by normally resistant RMA cells results in their susceptibility to lysis by C57BL/6 splenocytes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activation of NK cells is mediated through specific interactions between activation receptors and their respective ligands. Little is known, however, about whether costimulation, which has been well characterized for T cell activation, occurs in NK cells. To study the function of NKG2D, a potential NK costimulatory receptor, we have generated two novel hamster mAbs that recognize mouse NKG2D. FACS analyses demonstrate that mouse NKG2D is expressed on all C57BL/6 IL-2-activated NK (lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)) cells, all splenic and liver NK cells, and approximately 50% of splenic NKT cells. Consistent with limited polymorphism of NKG2D, its sequence is highly conserved, and the anti-NKG2D mAbs react with NK cells from a large number of different mouse strains. In chromium release assays, we show that stimulation of NK cells with anti-NKG2D mAb can redirect lysis. Also, enhanced lysis of transfected tumor targets expressing NKG2D ligand could be inhibited by addition of anti-NKG2D mAb. Interestingly, stimulation of LAK cells via NKG2D alone does not lead to cytokine release. However, stimulation of LAK via both an NK activation receptor (e.g., CD16, NK1.1, or Ly-49D) and NKG2D leads to augmentation of cytokine release compared with stimulation through the activation receptor alone. These results demonstrate that NKG2D has the ability to costimulate multiple NK activation receptors.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NKG2D transmits stimulatory signals to natural killer cells and other hematopoietic cells, leading to enhanced proliferation, cytokine secretion and target killing. Murine and human NKG2D each recognize five known class I-related molecules with distinct primary structures. Here, we used surface plasmon resonance to examine the binding of murine NKG2D to its cognate ligands: RAE-1B6 (a newly described C57BL/6J variant of RAE-1), RAE-1 delta (common to BALB and C57BL6/J), and H60 (expressed in BALB, but not C57BL/6J). While RAE-1B6 and H60 display relatively high affinities for NKG2D with K(D) in the 20-30 nM range and k(off )in the 0.03s(-1) to 0.06s(-1) range (t(1/2) approximately 10-20s); the RAE-1 delta variant binds with a lower affinity: K(D) of approximately 750 nM. Furthermore, RAE-1 delta displays biphasic kinetics with dominant k(off) of approximately 0.2s(-1) (t(1/2) approximately 3s), partially explaining the lower affinity. Thus, H60 and RAE-1B6 bind NKG2D with almost identical kinetics while sharing only 20% amino acid sequence identity; whereas other RAE-1 molecules demonstrate faster dissociation and lower affinities than RAE-1B6 despite sharing 90% sequence identity. C57BL/6J mice, although not expressing the H60 gene product, retain a high-affinity ligand for NKG2D in the form of RAE-1B6.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary Polymeric immunoglobulins provide immunological protection at mucosal surfaces to which they are specifically transported by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Using a panel of human IgA1/IgG1 constant region "domain swap" mutants, the binding site for the pIgR on dimeric IgA (dIgA) was localized to the C a 3 domain. Selection of random peptides for pIgR binding and comparison with the IgA sequence suggested amino acids 402-410 (QEPSQGTTT), in a predicted exposed loop of the C a 3 domain, as a potential binding site. Alanine substitution of two groups of amino acids in this area abrogated the binding of dIgA to pIgR, whereas adjacent substitutions in a b -strand immediately NH 2 -terminal to this loop had no effect. All pIgR binding IgA sequences contain a conserved three amino acid insertion, not present in IgG, at this position. These data localize the pIgR binding site on dimeric human IgA to this loop structure in the C a 3 domain, which directs mucosal secretion of polymeric antibodies. We propose that it may be possible to use a pIgR binding motif to deliver antigen- specific dIgA and small-molecule drugs to mucosal epithelia for therapy.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) A serves as the first line of humoral defense at all mucosal surfaces and is present in large quantities of blood. In playing its role in humoral immunity, IgA interacts with a variety of effector molecules present both in serum and on the surfaces of immune and inflammatory cells. To study these interactions, we previously established expression of human IgA1 in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses and showed that the expressed antibody is a structurally and functionally intact polypeptide useful for examining the molecular properties of IgA. Indeed, since the C alpha 2 N-linked glycosylation site lies near the Fab-distal pole of C alpha 2, the inability of a mutant IgA1 lacking C alpha 2 N-glycosylation to bind its cognate receptor suggested that the monocyte Fc alpha receptor (mFcalphaR) recognizes IgA at a hinge-distal site encompassing the boundary between the C alpha 2 and C alpha 3 domains. In this report, we utilize both domain-swapped IgA/IgG and point-mutated IgA chimeras to verify the above hypothesis. Using an antigen-specific rosetting assay and a mFc alpha R-expressing cell line, we show that (a) C alpha 2 and C alpha 3 together are necessary and sufficient for binding; (b) neither the IgA hinge nor the tailpiece is necessary for binding; (c) mutations away from the interdomain boundary do not affect binding; and (d) mutations located near the three-dimensional boundary between C alpha 2 and C alpha 3 completely disrupt binding. Taken together, these results localize the mFc alpha R recognition site on IgA to the boundary region between the second and third constant domains--a site analogous to that recognized by Staphylococcus aureus protein A on IgG. The use of this hinge-distal site is, to date, unique among Fc receptors of the Ig superfamily.
Preview · Article · May 1996 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgA serves as the first line of humoral defense at all mucosal surfaces and is present in large quantities in serum. To map the sites of interaction of immune effector molecules with the IgA constant region (C alpha), we have expressed soluble, chimeric human IgA in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. This antibody is correctly assembled into heavy chain/light chain heterodimers, N-glycosylated, and secreted by the insect cells; further, when coexpressed with a human J chain, the antibodies can assemble into dimers. The recombinant protein is authentic by a number of criteria, including antigen-binding, recognition by monoclonal antibodies, complement fixation via the alternative pathway, and specific binding to the monocyte IgA Fc receptor. We have also constructed viruses which encode structurally altered IgA heavy chains. Using one of these variant viruses, we have shown that glycosylation of the second domain of C alpha is required for interaction with the monocyte IgA Fc receptor. This system should prove useful in further characterization of the structure-function relationships in human C alpha.
Preview · Article · Sep 1994 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences